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PRELIMINARY CHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL STUDY FOR ALHAGI MANNIFERA (Desr)

M. Th. Ghoneim, A.R. El-Gindy, R.Ajmi,
E.Shoukry and R. Fatthouh
Kuwait

Some preliminary pharmacological studies were carried out and it was found that the alcoholic extract of Alhagi produced a potent anti-spasmodic effect. In addition, the extract showed some histamine and serotonin antagonizing effects. It is suggested that the extract contains more than one ingredient.

INTRODUCTION

Alhagi mannifera (Desr) Plants grow wild in Kuwait. It is used by the beduins for treatment of renal colic. Hussein reported that the extract of species grow in Egypt has a bronchodilator, in addition to smoth muscle relaxant effect.

n the Phytochemistry Research Lab. a preliminary chemical screening was done and found that it contains, cardeneloids, sterols and triterpens, carbohydrates and/or glycosides, flavonoid.s but no alkaloids. It was found of interest to study the possible pharmacological effects of the plants.

DISCUSSION

The alcoholic extract of Alhagi was found to possess potent antispasmodic effect which was manifested on several preparations. The extract was shown to decrease the spasmogenic effect of angiotensin, this effect was clarified in 2 ways, firstly, the extract decreased the response of the rabbit's duodenum to the spasmogenic effect of angiotensin. Secondly, the extract produced relaxation of the muscle which was under the spasmogenic effect of angiotensin. The extract also inhibited the spasmogenic effect of angiotensin on several other preparations. The spasmolytic effect of the extract is suggested to be mediated mainly through a direct effect on the smooth muscles since the extract was nearly devoid of anticholinergic or ganglion blocking effects. The extract was shown to exert histamine and serotonin antagonizing effects. On the guinea pig ileum, the supernatant fraction was shown to possess a dual effects, the first is stimulatory and the second is inhibitory .The inhibitory effect was masked by the influence of the stimulatory effect. The stimulation is not due to ganglionic or muscarinic effect but most probably mediated through a histamine like action because it was abolished after mepyramine. Once the stimulation was blocked by mepyramine, the supernatant fraction exerted its inhibitory effect which is suggested to be due to a direct action, this was manifested from the antagonizing effect to the spasmogenic action of angiotensin. Thus the supernatant fraction is believed to contain either one substance having a dual effect or more than one substance having different effects. The main pharmacological effects shown by the alcoholic extract were found to be also induced by the alcoholic eluate of the alcoholic extract. Other eluates were almost free from significant pharmacological actions. The alcoholic extract exerted moderate cardiac stimulant effect which is suggested to be due to a direct effect on the myocardium. This study is a preliminary one. Further investigations are carried out now to study the detailed pharmmacological actions of the plant as well as the possible toxicity.

CONCLUSION

The alcoholic extract of Alhagi was shown to possess antispasmodic effects. The effects are suggested to be mediated through a direct action on the smooth muscles. The extract exerted some histamine and serotonin antagonizing effects on some smooth muscles. It is suggested that the extract contains more than one active ingredient.