Plants> <Radix Paeoniae>
Radix Paeoniae is the dried root of Paeollia filciflora Pallas (Paeonaceae).
Paeonia alblflora Pallas., P. edulis Salisb., P. officinalis Thunb.
Baishao, bo-baishao, chuan-baishao, hang-baishao, mu-shaoyao, mudan, paeoniae
alba, paeony, pai shao yao, pe-shou, peony, peony root, Pfingstrose, shakuyaku,
shaoyao, syakuyaku, white peony, white-flowered peony.
Paeollia lactiflora Pallas is a perennial herb, 50-80cm high, with a stout
branched root. Leaves alternate and biternately compound, the ultimate
segments red- veined, oblong-elliptical. The leaflets are narrow-ovate
or elliptical, 8-12 cm long and 2-4cm wide. The petioles are 6-10cm long.
Flowers large (5-10cm in diameter), solitary, and red, white, or purple.
Sepals 4, herbaceous, persistent. Petals 5-10, larger than sepals. Stamens
numerous and anthers yellow; carpels 3-5, many-seeded. Fruit, 3-5 coriaceous
few-seeded follicles. Seeds large, subglobose; testa thick.
material of interest: dried root
Radix Paeoniae is cylindrical, straight or slightly curved, two ends truncate,
5- 20cm long and 1-2.5cm in diameter; externally light greyish brown to
reddish brown, glossy or with longitudinal wrinkles, rootlet scars and
occasional remains of brown cork, and with laterally elongated lenticels;
texture compact, easily broken, fracture relatively even, internally whitish
or pale brownish red. Cambium ring distinct and rays radial.
Odour, slight; taste, slightly sweet at first, followed bya sour or astringent
taste and a slight bitterness.
Literature description not available; to be established in accordance
with national requirements.
Light greyish brown powder; masses of gelatinized starch granules fairly
abundant, 5-25Ám in diameter; clusters of calcium oxalate 11-35Ám in diameter,packed
in parenchyma cells in rows or singly; bordered, pitted, or reticulate
vessels 20-65Ám in diameter, walls thickened and slightly lignified.
China, India, and Japan.
Macroscopic, microscopic, and microchemical examinations; thin-layer chromatographic
analysis for the presence of the monoterpene glycoside paeoniflorin.
The test for Salmonella spp. in Radix Paeoniae products should be negative.
The maximum acceptable limits of other microorganisms are as follows.
For preparation of decoctions: aerobic bacteria--not more than 10 7/g;
fungi--not more than 10 5/g; Escherichia coli--not more than 10 2/g.
Preparations for internal use: aerobic bacteria--not more than 10 5/g
or ml; fungi--not more than 10 4/g or ml; enterobacteria and certain Gram-negative
bacteria--not more than 10 8/g or ml; Escherichia coli-0/g or ml.
Not more than 6.5%.
Not more than 0.5%.
To be established in accordance with national requirements. Normally,
the maximum residue limit of aldrin and dieldrin for Radix Paeoniae is
not more than 0.05 mg/kg. For other pesticides, see WHO guidelines on
quality control methods for medicinal plants and guidelines for predicting
dietary intake of pesticide residues.
Recommended lead and cadmium levels are not more than 10 and 0.3 mg/kg.
respectively, in the final dosage form of the plant material.
For analysis of strontium-90, iodinc-13l, cacsium-134, caesium-137, and
plutonium-239, see WHO guidelines on quality control methods for medicinal
Alcohol-soluble extractive, chemical, foreign organic matter, moisturc
and water-soluble extractive tests to be established in accordance with
Contains not less than 2.0% of paeoniflorin, assayed by a combination
of thin-layer chromatographic-spectrophotometric methods or by high- performance
Paeoniflorin, a mono terpene glycoside that is the major active constituent,
is present in the range of 0.05-6.01%.
Crude plant material, powder, and decoction. Store in a ventilated dry
environment protected from light.
Uses supported by clinical data
described in pharmacopoeias and in traditional systems of medicine
As an analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antispasmodic drug in the treatment
of amenorrhoea, dysmenorrhoea, and pain in the chest and abdomen.
Radix paeniae is also used to treat dementia, headache, vertigo, spasm
of the calf muscles, liver disease, and allergies, and as an anticoagulant.
described in folk medicine, not supported by experimental or clinical
The treatment of atopic eczema, boils, and sores; to reduce fevers, induce
sterility, and treat burns.
The primary pharmacological effects of Radix Paeoniae are antispasmodic,
anti- inflammatory, and analgesic. A decoction of the drug had antispasmodic
effects on the ileum and uterus when administered orally to mice, rabbits,
and guinea-pigs. Similar effects were observed with a methanol extract
in rat uterus, but an ethanol extract had uterine stimulant activity in
rabbits. Radix Paeoniae extracts tested in vitro relaxed smooth muscles
in both rat stomach and uterine assays.
administration of a hot-water extract of Radix Paeoniae to rats inhibited
inflammation in adjuvant-induced arthritis and carrageenin- induced paw
oedema. The major active constituent of the drug, paeoniflorin, a monoterpenoid
glycoside, has sedative, analgesic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and
vasodilatory effects in vivo. Hexobarbital-induced hypnosis was potentiated
and acetic acid-induced writhing was inhibited in mice after intragastric
administration of paeoniflorin.
administration of hot-water or ethanol extracts of Radix Paeoniae to rats
inhibited ADP-, arachidonic acid- and collagen-induced platelet aggregation,
as well as endotoxin-induced disseminated intravascular coagulation. Similar
effects were observed in rabbits and mice after intraperitoneal administration
of the drug. When tested by the standard fibrin plate method, ethanol
and hot-water extracts of the drug had antifibrinolytic activity in vitro.
Paeoniflorin had anticoagulant activity both in vitro, and in vivo (in
administration of extracts of Radix Paeoniae protected the liver against
carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in mice and rats.
administration of water extracts of Radix Paeoniae or its major constituent,
paeoniflorin, attenuated the scopolamine-induced impairment of radial
maze performance in rats. Paeoniflorin prevented the scopolamine- induced
decrease in acetylcholine content in the striatum, but not in the hippocampus
or cortex. Oral administration of paeoniflorin further attenuated learning
impairment of aged rats in operant brightness discrimination tasks. The
results of this study suggest that further research to explore the therapeutic
potential of paeoniflorin in cognitive disorders such as senile dementia
may be promising.
Reports of traditional use indicate that Radix Paeoniae may have abortifacient
activity; therefore, the use of Radix Paeoniae in pregnancy is contraindicated.
No information available.
Radix Paeoniae should not be combined with Fritillaria vericillata, Cuscuta
japonica, and Rheum officinale.
mutagenesis, impairment of fertility
Hot-water or methanol extracts of Radix Paeoniae are not mutagenic in
Excretion of the drug into breast milk an dits effects on the newborn
have not been established; therefore, use of the drug during lactation
is not recommended.
No information available about general precautions, drug and laboratory
test interactions, or teratogenic effects on pregnancy.
No information available.
Maximum daily oral dose of crude plant material, 6-15g, standardized for
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