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Skin Grafting [105-110] Unlawful or Unclean Substances [94-104] Genetic Fingerprint [87-93] Circumcision [80-86] Smoking Water and Sanitation [68-71] Environmental Health [63-67] Animal Slaughter Islamic Lifestyle [50-56] Beginning and End of Life [33-49] Rights of Aged AIDS [9-25] Reproduction [1-8] In this part of our website, we will take responsibility for Fatwas concerning the issues related to Health, Medicine and its related subjects from the Islamic point of view.  At the same time, if you need more details you can click here or click here or contact us. 

The following issues were discussed by the IOMS, The Fiqh Academy at Jeddah and WHO in various meetings held between the years 1980 - 2000.

Human Reproduction

Q:1) Artificial insemination (Test Tube Babies) is it lawful or prohibited in Islam?
A:  Such practice is lawful under the following conditions:
a)  If it only involves a married couple
b)  During the marriage life.
c)  Sufficient & meticulous care is taken to avoid lineage confusion d)  The practice is unlawful if it involves an alien party, whether in the form of semen, an ovum, an embryo or a womb.

Q:2)  If a woman is ovulating but does not have uterus, could she inseminate and incubate this fertilized ovum in the uterus of another women?
A:  According to Islamic Sharea, it is not lawful.

Q:3)  If the above happened, who is the real mother?
A:  This fetus has two mothers.  One is the owner of the ova and the other one is the surrogate.  According to Islam, the surrogate is the lawful mother. The Quran says: "If any men among you divorce their wives by Zihar (calling them mother), they cannot be their mothers: None can be their mothers except those who gave them birth. And in fact they use words (both) iniquitous and false: but truly God is One that blots out (sins), and forgives (Again and again)". --(Al-Mujadila:2)

"And we have enjoined on man (To be good) to his parents: In travail upon travail did his mother bear him, and in years twain was his weaning: (hear the command), show gratitude to Me and to thy parents: to me is (thy final) goal". (Luqman: 14)

Q:4)  Is the Surgical Contraception (Sterilization) either on individual basis or on mass level lawful?
A
It is agreed that surgical contraception is lawful on the individual level in cases of necessity as determined by a trustworthy Muslim Doctor and when other alternatives have been exhausted.  On the level of the Muslim Nation at large it is unlawful and the scholars denounce turning sterilization into a general campaign and warns against its exploitation in demographic wars that aim at turning Muslims into minorities in their own countries or in the world as a whole.

Q:5)  Is Abortion lawful?  What is its condition from the Islamic point of view?
A:  The Muslim Jurists and earlier Fiqh Scholars unanimously forbid abortion.    Going over the views expressed by earlier fiqh scholars, with the keen insight and sound judgment they demonstrate, and noting that they unanimously forbid abortion after the breathing in of spirit,i.e. after the first four months of pregnancy, and that they differ over abortion before spirit is breathed in, with some opting for categorical prohibition or considering it reprehensible, and other prohibiting it after the first forty days and allowing it before that, with some difference over the necessity for justifying reasons; and benefiting from a review of contemporary medical and scientific advances as established in papers and by modern medical technology; the seminar concludes that an embryo is a living organism from the moment of conception, and its life is to be respected in all its stages, especially after spirit is breathed in.   Aggression against it, in the form of abortion, is unlawful except in cases of maximum necessity.  Some participants, however disagreed and believe abortion before the fortieth day, particularly when there is justification, is lawful.

Q:6)  I am a lady.  I feel shy whenever I visit any male Medical Doctor.  Could you tell me, whether the medical examination by the other sex is lawful from the Islamic point of view?
A:  It is lawful for a medical member of one sex to look at the awra ( a prohibited part of body to opposite sex, except face and hands) of a member of the other sex for purposes of medical examination, treatment, and medical education.   Exposition, however, should be limited to what the need calls for.

Q:7) What is the individual or national opinion on Fetal Sex Selection from the Islamic point of view?
A: There was an agreement from the Islamic legal viewpoint is that fetal sex selection is unlawful when it is practiced at a national level, while on an individual basis, some of the scholars participating in the seminar on "Human Reproduction in Islam" believe that there is nothing legally wrong with the attempt to fulfill the wish of a married couple to have a boy or a girl through available medical means, while other scholars believe that it is unlawful for fear that one sex might outnumber the other.

Q: 8) What is the Islamic view on mixed Human Milk Banks?
A: The setting up of banks of mixed human milk is to be discouraged. If medical need calls for them, banks of human milk may be set up for premature babies. A group of participants believe, on the basis of the opinion of the majority fiqh scholars, that the collection of milk should be done in a way that guarantees the identification of each donor and each baby receiver. The nursing should be written down in records that are kept, and everyone involved should be notified to avoid the marriage of persons who have a milk relationship entailing the prohibition of their marriage.

Others, however, believe that there is no need to identify the donors and receivers, on the basis of the opinion of Al-Laith Ibn Sa'd and the scholars of Al-Zhahiriyah School and their followers, who opine that milk relationships occurs only when a baby sucks the breast of a milk mother.

AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome)

Q: 9)  What is AIDS?
A:  This is an acronym of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome caused by a virus or HIV.  It results in extensive destruction of the body immune system which leads to increasing inability of the body to resist all types of infection, even those which are not normally associated with infection.

Q: 10)  How the AIDS virus is transmitted?
A:  It is transmitted from one person to another through body fluids such as sexual fluids (semen, fallopian and vaginal fluids) and blood.  It is , therefore, passed during sexual intercourse among both heterosexuals and homosexuals, or through the blood in cases of blood transfusion or via syringes or injection needles.

Q: 11)  How does the AIDS virus spread?
A: 
It spreads by three main causes -
1).  By sexual intercourse which accounts for 90% cases.  Promiscuity, sodomy, prostitution and sex with partners affected by venereal diseases contribute to increase in the rate of AIDS infection.
2).  Through blood transfusion or the use of infected needles and syringes, especially among drug addicts.
3).  Through infected mother to unborn babies.

Q: 12)  What does the Islam say about the unlawful sexual act?
A:  The Prophet Mohammed (PBUH) is reported to have said that " A person would be devoid of faith when he, or she, is committing an unlawful sexual act".

Q: 13)  What are the Islamic approaches for protection against AIDS?
A:  There are three measures recommended by Islam, as part of its moral code, which are essential for the prevention of AIDS.  These are - (a) marriage, (b) proscription of sexual promiscuity, and (c) deterrence.

(a)
Marriage:  This is an effective means to protect individuals especially young people, from indulging in illicit sexual activity.  The teachings of Prophet Mohammed (PBUH) urge Muslims to make marriage affordable and easy for all members of society.   He said: "When a man comes to you seeking marriage and if you are happy with his religious and moral integrity and honesty, give him your daughter; otherwise, immorality and corruption would spread among you all."

(b) Proscribing promiscuity: 
This is achieved through the following measures -

(i) 
Urging men and women to control their sexual urge and avoid the lewd gaze which could rouse sexual desires and lead to unlawful sexual contact.  Allah says in the Quran: "Tell the believing men and women to lower their gaze and protect their chastity, for that is bound to render them purer.  Allah is aware of all that they do."  (An-Noor:30)

(ii)  Advising women to dress modestly in public.  Allah instructs the Prophet (PBUH) to tell believing women: "Not to show their adornments, except those that are ordinarily outward, and to cover their bosoms with their veil".  (An Noor: 31).   They are also urged: "Not to walk tantalizingly, with the intention of revealing their beauty." (An-Noor: 31).  Women are taught to wear loose, plain and non-transparent clothes that preserve and enhance their dignity and modesty.

(iii)  Discouraging men and women who are not barred from marrying from being together on their own in private, in order to avoid the temptation of sexual attraction.

(iv)  Fighting permissiveness and loose social mingling between the sexes outside the inner family circle.

(v) Urging boys and girls as they come of age not to invade the privacy of their elders and peers without their permission.  Allah says in the Quran: "Believers, do not enter the dwellings of others until you announce your presence and have greeted those inside  them." (An-Noor: 27)

(vi)  Forbidding all provocative activities such as pornography, provocative singing, dancing, music and films, that tantalize and arouse sensual feelings.  Allah says in the Quran: "Some people indulge in frivolous activity, so that they may, in their ignorance, lead others away from the path of Allah and hold it up in ridicule.   These will receive a shaming punishment." (Luqman: 6).

(c)  Effective deterrence: 
When education and upbringing fail and other preventive methods prove ineffective in stamping out permissive behaviour in society, resort must then be made to punishment, as a deterrence to others.  However, such punishments must be prescribed under very stringent conditions of proof.  In case of illicit sexual acts, for example, punishment cannot be meted out without either a full admission by the accused, or the unanimous testimony of four eye witnesses who must agree on every detail of the misdemeanour.

According to Quran, illicit sexual acts are punishable by one hundred lashes for offenders.  It says: "Each woman or man who engages in illicit sexual acts shall be given a hundred lashes.  Let no pity for them dissuade you from obeying God 's commands, if you truly believe in God and the Last Day and let their punishment be witnessed by crowd of believers." (An-Noor: 2)

Q: 14)  What is the view of Islam on Sodomy and homosexual acts?
A:  Quran severely condemns these practices.  Allah says: "when our judgment came to pass we turned it (the city of Sodom) upside down and showered it with a torrent of claystones bearing the tokens of your Lord." (Hud: 82-83)

Q: 15) What is the Islamic Punishment for deliberate transmission of AIDS?
A: As no cure from the AIDS is, as yet, available, the premediated transmission of the virus is tantamount to poisoning/killing. And, killing with insidious means is a capital offence, and is not different from killing with a material instrument, and thus leads to capital punishment.

Q: 16) What is the Islamic point of view regarding the marriage involving AIDS carriers?
A: Any one who knows that he or she is an AIDS carrier must not enter a marriage relationship without disclosing the facts, for transmitting the disease is criminal and hiding the fact would be fraudulent, and both acts are objectionable.

Q: 17) Is annulment of marriage permissible in Islam if the infection is discovered after marriage?
A: Yes, Islamic law allows the annulment of marriage under such a condition.

Q: 18) Should an infected couple be allowed to marry?
A: They may be allowed to marry whether they choose to use condome during sexual intercourse or not. But since the risk of passing the virus from the mother to her baby is high, they should take all precautions to prevent conception.

Q:19) Is there right of sexual intercourse among infected spouses?
A: If one of the spouses is an AIDS patient, the other can refuse sexual intercourse. However, if healthy spouse agrees, then adequate precaution must be taken to reduce the risk of infection and conception.

Q: 20) Has the healthy spouse right to divorce or separation?
A: Yes, either spouse has the right to separate from another who is an AIDS carrier, whether the infection occurs before or after marriage.

Q: 21) What are the obligations of separation of spouses?
A: If the wife is the carrier, she will not receive entitlements of a divorced wife. The husband has the full right to reclaim the dowry he had paid or its equivalent if the marriage had already been consummated. However, if the husband is the carrier, the wife will receive her deferred dowry and the muta'ah or compensation.

Q: 22) Can an AIDS-infected fetus be aborted?
A: No, the baby cannot be aborted, as the AIDS sufferer should not be deprived of treatment and whose life must not be deliberately terminated.

Q: 23) Should a baby be aborted for the sake of an AIDS infected mother?
A: If the baby's continued presence in the womb threatens mother's life, the baby may be sacrificed for the sake of the mother because the baby's chance of life is much less than that of the mother.

Q:24) Can an AIDS suffering mother nurse her healthy baby?
A: As long as the mother takes the necessary precautions of hygiene and health care vital to prevent transmission of AIDS Virus, she can nurse her baby.

Q: 25) Are the AIDS sufferers terminally ill patients?
A: No, they cannot be considered terminally ill until the full symptoms of the disease are apparent and the patients begin to display signs of total disability and are no longer able to lead reasonably normal life, subsequently culminating in death.

RIGHTS OF THE AGED PERSONS

Q: 26) What is the Islamic concept of the care of aged?
A: Islam takes care of old age in a manner that maintains the dignity. This dignity includes the provision of sufficient income , food, health care, accommodation and social relationship.

Q: 27) Who is responsible for taking care of aged?
A: The duty of taking care of the old is the responsibility of sons and daughters. Any kind of disobeyance to parents, be considered as a sinful act, and will be punished severely by God.

Q: 28) If a person does not have sons and daughters, who will take care of him during his old days?
A: If the old man has no sons and daughters, then his grandsons and/or granddaughters must support him. If there are no children or grandchildren, then, according to the Hanifite, the relatives must support the aged person.

Q: 29) What is the view of Islam regarding social security care for the aged?
A: Islamic jurisprudence clearly states the rights of the ageing and needy people. The rich people must provide assistance to the poor. The governor must compel them to do so if the share of the poor from Zakat could not support them. The resolution of the social security for the aged and sick was imposed by Islam and carried out by the Caliphates through the Islamic history.

Q: 30) What does the Islamic jurisprudence suggest to help the needy?
A: Islamic jurisprudence has suggested various means to take care of the needy. These include - (a) obligatory donations (Sadaqa), (b) Kaffara, which is obligatory in certain cases by Islamic law, (c) Optional donations, and (d) Awqaf (endowments).

Q: 31) What does Quran say about the duty of children towards parents?
A: It is imperative as Allah says: "Worship Allah and join none with Him in worship, and do good to parents"..... (Al-Nisaa: 36). "And your Lord has decreed that you worship none but Him and that you be dutiful to your parents ....." (Al-Israa: 23).

Q: 32) Has the father right to son's property?
A: Yes. This is proven by the Prophet's (PBUH) tradition. A man came to the Prophet (PBUH) and said: " I have funds, property and children and my father is in need". The Prophet (PBUH) answered: " you and your property belong to your father".

BEGINNING AND END OF HUMAN LIFE

Q: 33) What does the Quran say about the inception of human life?
A: In the Surah entitled Al-Mu'minun, Allah says: " We first make man from an essence of clay: Then place him a drop of sperm, in a safe enclosure. Then we create out of the drop of sperm a germ-cell and we create out of the embryonic lump bones, and then we clothe the bones with flesh, then we bring all this into being as a new creation. Blessed is God, the noblest of creators. (Al-Mu'minun: 12-14).

Q: 34) What is the Prophet Mohammed's (PBUH) view about the inception of human life?
A: The Prophet (PBUH) is quoted to have said: "The creation of each one of you is brought together in the belly of his mother for forty days in the form of a drop of sperm, then for a similar period, he is a germ-cell, then for another forty days, he is an embryonic lump, then angel is sent to him to breathe spirit into him, and is ordered to write down four words: its livelihood, life duration, career, whether it is to be miserable or happy".

Q: 35) What is the general concept of the inception of life?
A: The inception of life occurs with the union of a sperm and an ovum, forming a zygote which carries the full genetic code of the human race in general and of the particular individual, who is different from all others throughout the ages. The zygote begins a process of cleavage that yields a growing and developing embryo, which progresses through the stages of gestation towards birth.

Q: 36) When does a zygote deserves to be respected?
A: From the moment a zygote settles inside human body, it deserves a unanimously recognized degree of respect, and a number of legal stipulations apply to it.

Q: 37) When does the embryo acquires greater sanctity?
A: When the embryo arrives at the spirit-breathing stage, the time of which is subject to controversy, being either 40 or 120 days, the fetus acquires greater sanctity, as all scholars agree, and additional legal stipulations apply to it.

Q: 38) What is the most important legal stipulation which applies to the fetus?
A: Among the most important of these stipulations is that which governs abortion as pointed out in Article 7 of the "Recommendations of the Seminar on Reproduction in Islam".

Q: 39) Is there any difficulty in recognizing death in majority of cases?
A: In the majority of cases, there is no difficulty in recognizing the occurrence of death through conventional signs or as a result of external medical observation which notes the absence of the signs that distinguish the living from the dead.

Q: 40) What is the importance of diagnosing death in exceptional cases?
A: A few cases, which are usually under careful and comprehensive medical observation at hospitals, specialized medical centers and intensive care units, have particular importance because there is an urgent need to diagnose them as dead, although the body still shows the signs which have been always accepted as signs of life, whether these signs are naturally displayed by some organs or result from the resuscitation equipment applied to the patient.

Q: 41) What is the opinion of Fiqh scholars regarding death?
A: The seminar has discussed the signs of death listed by Fiqh reference work and discovered that, in the absence of Quran or Traditional Text which explicitly defines death, these opinions reflect the medical knowledge available at that time. Because, the diagnosis and the signs of death have always been a medical matter, on the basis of which Fiqh scholars make legal rulings, participating physicians presented the current medical view concerning the occurrence of death.

Q: 42) What are the medical views for proclaiming death?
A: The decisive factor proclaiming the death is the lifelessness of the area of brain that is responsible for vital body functions, which is expressed as death of brain stem. Any other vital organ or function, such as heart or respiration, may temporarily stop, but as long as the brain stem is alive, it can be revived. The lives of a number of patients are saved this way. When, however, the brain stem itself has died, there is no hope of saving the patient.

Q: 43) What is the view of Fiqh scholars regarding brain stem death?
A: Based on the medical opinion, the Fiqh scholars are inclined to view that when it is ascertained that a human being has reached the stage of brain stem death, he is considered to have withdrawn from life, and certain rulings of the dead are applicable to him, in analogy, though with the evident difference, with what Fiqh books say about an injured person who has reached the stage known as that of the "slain". As for the remaining rulings that concern the dead, the Fiqh scholars participating in the seminar, prefer their postponement until all major systems of the body come to a stop.

Q: 44) Is it lawful to remove the resuscitation equipment?
A: Yes, when the death of the brain stem is certified by a committee of medical specialists, it is lawful to remove the resuscitation equipment.

Q: 45) What are the signs signifying death?
A: An individual is considered dead in one of the following two situation-

(i) Complete irreversible cessation of respiratory and cardiovascular system.
(ii) Complete irreversible cessation of functions of the brain including the brain stem..

These criteria should be confirmed by the accepted medical standards.

Q: 46) What are the preconditions necessary before considering the diagnosis of brain death?
A: The person must be in continuous deep uninterrupted coma for at least for six hours, without any attempt at spontaneous breathing. The cause of coma can be explained by extensive damage to the structure of brain, such as severe traumatic concussion, massive intracranial hemorrhage, after intracranial surgery, a large intracranial tumour or obstructed blood supply to the brain, confirmed by adequate diagnostic measures.

Q: 47) What is the Islamic definition of death?
A: Imam Ghazali and others define death as the departure of the spirit, that is its leaving the body after having dwelled in it. This departure may have many causes. The common saying goes "causes vary, but death is the same".

Q: 48) What human spirit is?
A: Spirit is the nicely in a human being that has all knowledge and perception. It is a wonderous Divine concern, the reality of which is something most minds are unable to understand.

Q: 49) What does the empirical sciences say about spirit?
A: The spirit can never be subject to empirical sciences because spirit is something the knowledge of which God has kept to Himself and no one should seek to find about it more than the fact that it exists.

ISLAMIC LIFE STYLES AND THIER IMPACT ON HEALTH

Q: 50) What is the correlation between faith and lifestyles?
A: It is evident that faith is the basis and essence of lifestyles and the axis around which innumerable positive phenomena turn in all aspects of life, including physical, psychological and spiritual health and the development and enrichment of human life, in general.

Q: 51) What is the importance of Islamic lifestyles?
A: Islam, as defined in the Quran, in the natural course of life which God has bestowed on humanity. Hence, adhering to Islamic lifestyles is, in itself, a realization of the true nature of human being, and ensures harmony with the laws of God in body and soul, in the individual, the family and community, and between human beings and their environment.

Q: 52) Is health a blessing from God?
A: Yes, health is one of the greatest blessings God gave to human beings; in fact it is the greatest after the blessing of faith. Alongwith security and basic minimum needs, health is the guarantee of good life.

Q: 53) What are the Prophet's (PBUH) views about good health?
A: The Prophet (PBUH) said:
- "There are two blessings which people do not appreciate: health and leisure".
- " No blessing other than faith is better than health".
- " He who has securing in his community group and is healthy in body and has his daily sustenance, is as if he had all the world at his finger tips".

Q: 54) How to preserve good health?
A: Preservation of the blessing of health and increasing it come through being grateful through working towards preserving and promoting it, through avoiding any behaviour that leads to its neglect or change as those bring about the disappearance of health and punishment through illness.

Q: 55) What does the Quran says about preserving good health?
A: The Quran said:
- " If you are grateful, I will add more (favours) unto you (14:7).
- " Because God will never change the grace which has bestowed on a people until they change themselves (8:53).
- "He that tampers with the boon of God after it has been bestowed on him shall find that God is stern in retribution (2:211).

Q: 56) What are the general guidelines suggested by Islam to preserve and promote good health?
A: The Islam suggests various guidelines to preserve and promote good health. These include -
(i) Hygiene of the self and the surroundings.
(ii) Proper food
(iii) Proper clothing
(iv) Marriage
(v) Rearing of children
(vi) Traveling precautions
(vii) Forbidding the psychotropic agents and alcohol
(viii) Prohibition of gambling
(ix) Conservation of environment
(x) Rights of the elderly, etc. etc.

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ISLAMIC RULING ON ANIMAL SLAUGHTER

Q 57) : What is the Arabic term for the correct method of animal slaughter?
A:
The correct method of animal slaughter according to the requirements of Islamic religion is called "Tazkiya".

Q 58): What are the ways of animal slaughter in Islam?
A:
The animals are slaughtered by one of the following three ways:-

(i) Zabh: Slitting of animal's throat, oesophagus and jugular veins. It is mostly used on sheep, goat, cows and birds but could also be used on other animals.

(ii) Nahr: Stabbing the animal in the throat and cutting downward to the top of the chest. This is mainly used for camels and other such large animals, but could also be used for cows.

(iii) Aqr: Causing a physical wound to an unwieldy animal, whether a domestic but untamed animal or a wild one that is permissible for hunting.

Q 59): Is it necessary to invoke the name of God over the animal that is intended for slaughter?
A:
Yes, it is necessary. God says in the Quran: "Eat of that (meat) over which the name of God has been invoked" (6:118) and, "Do not eat that (meat) over which the name of God has not been invoked" (6:121).

Q: 60) How is the name of God invoked?
A:
This is done by reciting the following Arabic Phrase: "bismillah allahu akbar", which means " In the name of God; God is Greatest, or words to that effect.

Q: 61) Which meat is forbidden in Islam?
A:
God says in the Quran: "Say [You, Muhammad]: I find nothing in what has been revealed to me that forbids men to eat any food except carrion, split blood, swine flesh, for these are unclean, or an abomination over which a name other than that of God had been invoked" (6:145), and also says "He (God) has forbidden you carrion, blood, swine flesh and that (meat) over which a name other than that of God has been invoked" (6:173).

God also says in the Quran: "You are forbidden (the consumption) of carrion, blood, swine flesh, that (meat) over which a name other than that of God has been invoked, (the meat of ) strangled animals, those that have fallen, been beaten or rammed (or gorged by other animals) to death, those mangled (or devoured) by beasts of prey, save those which you slaughter in time; and those sacrificed to idols" (5:3).

Q: 62) Is the forbidden meat permitted under exceptional circumstances?
A:
Yes, God says in the Quran: "Whosoever is forced by hunger, not intending to commit sin, (to eat of what is forbidden), will find God forgiving and merciful" (5:3). " God has set out for you in full detail what has been forbidden to you, unless you are compelled thereto" (6:119). "Whoever is compelled (to eat forbidden meat) through necessity, neither craving nor transgressing, shall incur no offense". (2:173)

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ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH - AN ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE

Q: 63) What does Islam say about maintaining clean environment?
A:
The Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) urged the people to clean and not pollute their environment. He (PBUH) said: "To clear the road of all sources of harm is a benefaction". Benefaction, or sadaqa, is a term used in Islam to refer to what we call today civilized behaviour or civilized conduct, because as the derivation of the Arabic word suggests, it is true evidence that an individual belongs to the civilized Muslim community.

The Prophet's (PBUH) guidance also includes his injunction, "Let no one urinate in stagnant water". The Prophet (PBUH) has forbidden anyone to urinate where he bathes". He used to say: "Avoid the two actions that bring peoples curses!" He was asked: "What are these?" "The one who defecates in the road and the shade used by others".

Q: 64) What does Islam tell against exploiting environment?
A:
God draws our attentions to what may occur if humans, indifferent to the various types of balance, go too far in exploiting the environment, which is what we are witnessing today. He says: "If God were to bestow abundance upon His servants, they would behave on the earth with wanton insolence" (42:27). He also says: " Do not follow the counsel of those who are given to excesses, those spread corruption on earth instead of setting things to rights" ( 26: 151-152). And He says: "Had the Truth been in accordance with their desires, certainly heavens and the earth would have been corrupted" (23:71).

Q: 65) Is excessive exploitation of environment punishable by God?
A:
Yes, excessive exploitation of environment with no check or control is an injustice of the worst type. It is ingratitude for the favours bestowed by God, because gratitude for a favour means that one should maintain and guard it. God gives the example of a town which..." was once safe and secure. Its sustenance came to it in abundance from every quarter. But it was ungrateful for God's favours. Therefore, He afflicted it with famine and fear of what it did" (16:112). Speaking of similar towns, God says: "Such is the scourge of your Lord when he chastises sinful towns. Harrowing and severe is His punishment" (11:102). But "God was not unjust in treating them (29:40). It were they who used to "transgress in the earth and act unjustly...Mankind, it is against your own souls that your offenses rebound" (10:23). God does not stop at warning against corruption; he also points out the right way. He instructs the Prophet (PBUH) "Say: My Lord has commanded you to be just" (7: 29), meaning to be fair and moderate in all matters without going into either extreme.

Q: 66) What are the views of the Prophet (PBUH) about plantation?
A:
The Prophet (PBUH) sought to encourage agriculture in order to increase vegetation resources and enhance benevolent environment. He (PBUH) said: "Whenever a Muslim plants or grows a sapling or a plant, and a human being, a beast, or anything else feeds upon it, it is counted for him as an act of benevolence".

Q: 67) Did the Prophet (PBUH) establish environmental ?
A:
Yes. The Prophet (PBUH) was the first to establish environmental reservations, where trees could not be cut down and animals could not be killed. "God's messenger protected the whole Medina, section by section, where no tree could be uprooted and nothing bigger than what can be used to drive a camel could be cut". He also said: "I forbid the trees between the two lavas of Medina to be cut down and the game to be killed". Referring to the Wajj Valley in Taif, he said, "The game and trees of Wajj are forbidden".

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WATER AND SANITATION IN ISLAM

Q: 68) What importance Islam gives to personal cleanliness?
A:
Islam attaches great importance to cleanliness. This is clearly apparent in Islamic legislation which makes ablution and bathing a duty. Islam also requires to wash our hands before and after meals, and to wash our clothes to purify them. All these obligations are related to individual and collective acts of worship, emphasizing the Islamic concept which considers man's body and soul two parts of a single entity which are mutually complementary.

Q: 69) Is cleanliness a prerequisite for prayers?
A:
Yes. God has made ablution an essential preliminary for prayers. He explains that: "God does not want to impose any hardship on you, but wants to make you pure" (5:6). Ablution is a divine obligation to be undertaken by everyone who wishes to pray. God says in the Quran: " Believers, when you prepare for prayer, wash your faces and your hands upto elbow, and wipe your heads and wash your feet up to the ankles (5:6). The Prophet (PBUH): "God does not accept any prayers which have not been preceded by ablution".

Q: 70) Are Muslims urged to perform ablution for purposes other than prayers?
A:
Yes. A person who is in a state of ceremonial impurity, i.e. janaba, is encouraged to perform ablution if he wants to eat or sleep, though the state of janaba required taking bath in which one washes the entire body. However, Islam encourages a person in such a state to perform ablution if he delays taking bath. The Prophet (PBUH) was asked whether a person in a state of ceremonial impurity may sleep, eat or drink. He answered: Yes, if he performs ablution in the same manner as when he wants to pray".

Islam also requires a man who has had sexual intercourse with his wife and wants to do so again to perform ablution in the interval. According to an authentic hadith: "If any one of you has had intercourse with his wife, and wants to repeat it, he should perform ablution".

Muslims are also recommended to perform ablution before going to bed, and when one is in a state of anger or has touched or carried a dead person, and before reciting the Quran or reading the hadith, and for attending Islamic lessons, entering a mosque, calling for prayer, giving a sermon or visiting a graveyard.

Q: 71) Is taking a bath considered obligatory in Islam?
A:
Yes, taking a bath is considered obligatory in Islam on a number of occasions, including the end of menstruation and post natal discharge, after sexual intercourse and wet dreams. In this connection, God says in the Quran: "If you are in a state of ceremonial impurity, purify yourself" (5:6). He also says: "Believers, do not come near prayers when you are drunk until you are aware of what you are saying, nor when you are in a state of ceremonial impurity, except during traveling, until you have taken a bath" (4:43).

Islam requires its followers to take special care to keep themselves clean by taking bath regularly, even in the absence of above causes. A Muslim is required to take bath before the weekly Friday prayer and for attending prayer on the two annual Islamic feasts. It is also recommended to bath frequently during the pilgrimage and the Umra and on such occasions as entering Mecca, prayer for rainfall, when there is an eclipse, on regaining consciousness after fainting, after having washed the body of a dead person, when one feels that one's body odour is becoming unpleasant, before retiring to a mosque for mediation and prayer, when entering Medina and before attending any gathering.

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ISLAMIC RULING ON SMOKING

Q: 72) Is smoking hazardous to health?
A:
The unanimous answer is 'yes'. In 1962, British Royal College of Physicians established a link between smoking and bad health. In 1970, a senior medical consultant in the USA gave strong health warnings that "smoking is harmful to health". In 1978, WHO experts announced that smoking is a major cause of ill health and premature death; but this is avoidable by giving up smoking or not smoking at all.

Q: 73) How many people die of smoking-related diseases each year?
A:
Around 2.5 million people die each year worldwide due to smoking related diseases, a rate of one death every 13 second.

Q: 74) What is the death rate due to various smoking related diseases?
A:
Smoking-related diseases contribute to a large proportion of total death worldwide. For instance, they contribute to 30% in Cuba, 25% in the USA, 15-20% in the UK. Translated into figures, these rates give 400,000 deaths in the USA, 140,000 in the Federal Republic of Germany, 100,000 in the UK, 70,000 in Italy and 23,000 in Australia.

Q: 75) What is passive smoking?
A:
Passive smoking refers to involuntary inhalation by nonsmokers of other people's cigarette smoke whether in office, on public transport or in the home. It is estimated to be responsible for 4000 to 5000 deaths every year in the USA, around 1000 in Britain and 500 in Canada, while women who are nonsmokers but married to smokers are much greater risk of contracting lung cancer than those married to non smokers.

Q: 76) What is the Islamic ruling on smoking?
A:
It is abundantly clear, that sooner or later, smoking in whichever form and by whichever means, causes extensive health and financial damage to smokers. It is also the cause of variety of diseases. Consequently, and on the evidence alone, smoking would be forbidden and should in no way be practiced by Muslims. Furthermore, the obligation to preserve one's health and wealth, as well as that of society as a whole, and medical evidence now on the dangers of smoking, further support this view. God says: "Eat and drink but never dissipate" (7:31). He also says: "But squander not your wealth in the manner of a standthrift. Verily squanderers are Satan's brothers" (17:27), "And do not with your hands cast yourselves into destruction" (2:195).

Q: 77) Is smoking haram in Islam?
A:
Yes, Smoking is haram in Islam, and it is the duty of every Muslim to fight this harmful and deadly habit.

Q: 78) Can growing and trading of tobacco be considered haram?
A:
Yes, in view of the harm caused by tobacco, growing, trading in and smoking of tobacco are judged to be haram. The Prophet (PBUH) is reported to have said, "Do not harm yourselves or others". Furthermore, tobacco is unwholesome and God says in the Quran that the Prophet (PBUH) "enjoins upon them that which is good and pure and forbids them that which is unwholesome".

Q: 79) What does the Prophet's (PBUH) about the unpleasant smell (of smoke)?
A:
The unpleasant smell of smoke annoys not only nonsmokers but the honoured angels as well. Islam forbids annoying others by offensive smells. The Messenger of God (PBUH) says: "Let him keep away from us; let him keep away from our mosque; let him stay home; he whose breath reeks of garlic or onion". The smell of smoke is not less offensive than that of garlic or onion. That the angels should not be annoyed by human beings is manifest in the following saying by the Prophet (PBUH): "The angels are annoyed by the same things that annoy human beings". The Prophet (PBUH) speaks forcibly against causing annoyance to other Muslims: "The one who annoys a Muslim is annoying me; and the one annoys me annoys God".

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ISLAMIC RULING ON CIRCUMCISION

Q: 80) What is male circumcision in Islamic Law?
A:
In Islamic law, circumcision is the removal of skin flap which covers the balances.

Q: 81) Is male circumcision obligatory in Islam?
A:
Yes, it is obligatory in Islam.

Q: 82) What has the Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) said about male circumcision?
A: The Prophet (PBUH) said that "Sound human nature is in five things: circumcision, removal of pubic hair, plucking of armpit hair, trimming of moustache, and cutting of nails".

Q: 83) What are the advantages of male circumcision?
A:
By circumcision, the body is relieved of apocket where dirt, germs and fungi accumulate and a focus of impurity and offensive smell. Several medical studies have concluded that the occurrence of inflammation of male genitals is higher among men who have not been circumcised, and that infection with sexually transmitted diseases such as syphilis, gonorrhoea, and particularly AIDS, is more common among them. In addition, the incidence of male genital cancer is reduced by circumcision, and th erate of occurrence of cervical cancer among married women is less in th ecase of the wives of circumcised men.

Q: 84) What is the appropriate for male circumcision?
A:
There are two peiods for it. The first is the time of puberty, and the other is any time before that. The seventh day after birth is chosen as the proper date for circumcision, unless the baby is too weak to take it. Then it is postponed until the child can go through it.

Q: 85) What are the harms caused by female circumcision?
A:
Female circumcision, and infibulation in particular, has severe consequences leading to terrible psychological effect, causing depression, nervous tension, and anxiety. It weakens the sexual desire and becomes major obstacle in the way of her sexual satisfaction, spoiling her marital life. It may also cause infection, and result in sterility or difficult delivery.

Q: 86) Is female circumcision legitimate under Islamic law?
A: No, it cannot be legitimate under Islamic law, particularly since nothing that recommends it is definitely established as said by the Prophet (PBUH). It is, however, estabished that he (PBUH) has said: " Do not harm yourself or others". This hadith is one of the basic principles of True Religion. Thus, female circumcision is nether required not it is an obligation nor a Sunna.

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GENETIC FINGERPRINT

Q: 87) What is genetic fingerprint?
A:
Genetic fingerprint is a unique and special pattern of genetic structure reflected in each cell of every individual of either sex. This unique pattern is not shared with any other human being at any time, and is a categorical proof of biological parentage and identity, particularly for the purposes of forensic medicine.

Q: 88) What is the view of Islamic scholars regarding genetic fingerprint?
A
: Genetic fingerprint is approved by majority of Islamic scholars for proving lineage where there is a dispute. It has a better claim to be considered as valid evidence, ahead of qiyafah (tracing a person's ancestry through features and resemblance), and should be accepted as a proof or evidence in cases of dispute over the parentage of person with unknown parentage, should other evidence be lacking or of equal validity.

Q: 89) What is the Islamic view regarding the validity of genetic fingerprint in cases of acknowledged parentage?
A
: The acknowledgement of parentage of someone with unknown lineage is an indisputable right of a person, provided that it meets the conditions established in this regard. Consequently, it is not open to the acknowledging parent to go back on his claim and deny parentage. No denial of the acknowledged person's lineage by any one of the acknowledging parent's children is admissible. Nor is there any validity for the genetic fingerprint in denying such a lineage.

Q: 90) What is the Islamic view regarding the validity of genetic fingerprint in cases of acknowledged brotherhood?
A
: In a case where only some sibling acknowledging the brotherhood of a person with unknown parentage, such acknowledgement is not binding on the rest of siblings and does not constitute an absolute evidence of lineage. Moreover, such an acknowledgement affects only the acknowledging siblings in respect of their shares of inheritence. The genetic fingerprint may not be taken as valid evidence in such cases.

Q: 91) What is the Islamic view concerning the evidence to prove the motherhood of a certain child?
A
: The Islamic scholars are thoroughly studying the issue, and their views are expected to be known shortly.

Q: 92) What is Islamic view regarding the validity of genetic fingerprint regarding the 'marital bed'?
A
: Genetic fingerprint is not considered valid evidence of 'marital bed'. Marriage is proven only according to established Islamic rules.

Q: 93) What are the essential conditions in any analysis of genetic fingerprint?
A:
The following conditions are essential:-

(i) Should be carried out by permission of the concerned judge,
(ii) Should be conducted two time atleast in more than one accredited laboratory, none of the laboratories that conduct the analysis should be aware of the result obtained by another laboratory,
(iii) These laboratories should prefrerably belong tyo the government. If resort has to be made to private laboratories, it must be assured that these laboratories meet the universally recognized conditions and standards of excellence in this field.
(iv) The integrity and professional ability of the personnel working in the laboratory should be of high standard, and none of them should be a relative, a friend, an enemy of any party of dispute or have any interest with any party nor have been convicted of any moral or ethical offense.

THE USE OF UNLAWFUL OR JURIDICALLY UNCLEAN SUBSTANCES IN FOOD AND MEDICINE

Q:94) What are the general principles in Islam concerning diet and therapy?
A: Every Muslim is under obligation to abide by the rulings of Islamic Shariah, especially in the areas of food and medicine, which is conducive to a healthy life style in diet and therapy. Allah Almighty, out of His infinite Mercy and Providence, has granted us concessions in cases of dire and ordinary needs which includes the important principle - "Necessities overrule prohibitions".

Q:95)What is the basic rule in Islam regarding juridically unclean substances?
A: The basic rule is that all things are lawful unless specifically prohibited. Similarly all things are juridically clean except those specified otherwise. Prohibition of a food or drink need not necessarily mean that is it juridically unclean.

Q:96) Is alcohol juridically clean?
A: Yes, alcohol is juridically clean, on the basis of things that are juridically unclean. This applies whether it is pure or diluted, giving preference to the view that the uncleanliness of wine and other intoxicants or alcoholic beverages is ideational rather than physical.

Q:97). Can alcohol be used as antiseptic or disinfectant?
A: Yes, alcohol can be used as antiseptic or disinfectant for wounds or surgical instruments.

Q:98) What is the Islamic view regarding using of perfumes or scents containing alcohol as a solvent?
A: There is no harm in using perfumes or scents (e.g. Eau de Cologne) in which alcohol is used as a solvent for volatile fragrant or aromatic substances or in using creams which contain alcohol. But this ruling does not apply for wine or other alcoholic drinks, for their use is initially prohibited.

Q:99) Is it prohibited to take alcohol containing medicines?
A: There is no prohibition to using medicines currently in production containing a very small amount of alcohol for the purpose of preservation or dissolution and not for sedation, until an alternative is available to prepare alcohol-free medicine.

Q:100) What is the Islamic view for eating food containing little amount of wine/alcohol?
A: Foods containing even a very little amount of wine or alcohol is prohibited, including chocolates and drinks or foods tinged with alcohol. The Sharia rules that "what intoxicates if given abundantly is prohibited even in the smallest dose". The rule of exceptional permissibility is not applicable here due to the lack of the factor of necessity.

Q:101) Is it permissible to take foods where a tiny amount of alcohol is used as a solvent for water-insoluble materials?
A: Yes, it is permissible to take foods where a tiny amount of alcohol is used for the purpose of dissolving materials which are insoluble in water such as colour makers, preservatives etc. The principle on which this permission is based is 'General Inescapable Necessity (Umum al-Balwa). This apart, it is also a factor that most of the alcohol added gets evaporated during the process of production.

Q:102) What is the Islamic view regarding foodstuffs containing pig fat?
A: Foodstuffs containing pig fat which does not undergo denaturation, eg. some varieties of cheese, vegetable oil/lubricant, butter, biscuit, chocolate, cream and ice-cream etc., are prohibited on account of the consensus of scholars on the uncleanliness of the pig and impermissibility of its eating. Obviously, a situation warranting an exception due to "necessity" does not usually pertain.

Q:103) Is it permissible to use insulin obtained from pig?
A: Yes, it is permissible to treat diabetes patients with insulin obtained from a pig source because of "necessity" provided the relevant rules and principles of Shariah are observed.

Q:104) What is the Shariah ruling for the use of originally deemed to be unclean material transformed into entirely different material?

A: "Transformation" i.e. the process that causes an object to change into another, totally different in properties and characters, turns the unclean, or what is deemed to be unclean, into a clean object, and therefore turns prohibited things into things permissible by the Shariah.

Under this ruling following is concluded:

i. Gelatine made from unclean animal's bones, skin and tendons is clean and permissible for consumption.

ii. Soap produced by treating and transforming pig fat or fat obtained from dead animal turns into a clean substance by the process of transformation and therefore using soap is permissible.

iii. Cheese processed with rennet, obtained from animals which are dead but are permissible to eat, is clean and its eating is permissible.

iv. Ointments, creams and cosmetics which contain pig fat are all unclean. Their use is impermissible in Shariah except when transformation (of the material into one of totally different properties) is ensured.

SKIN GRAFTING

Q:105) Is skin grafting permissible in Islam?
A: Yes, it is permissible subject to the fulfilment of certain conditions.

Q:106) What are the conditions which make the skin grafting permissible in Islam?
A: Following conditions are necessary for the permissibility of skin grafting -

i. The skin transplantation is the only effective method of treatment.

ii. The harm, if any, caused to the donor, in case of donation, by the process of removal is within the standard acceptable limits.

iii. The operation is promising i.e. the likelihood of success is far more than that of failure.

iv. The skin is not acquired by sale, intimidation or deception. However, if no volunteer is available then there is no objection to obtaining necessary skin in exchange of price.

Q:107) Are the patches of skin obtained from the person undergoing trans- plantation or another human, live or dead, juridically clean?
A: Yes, these patches are juridically clean according to Shariah.

Q:108) Is skin graft from an animal lawful?
A: Yes, skin grafts from an animal which is lawful to eat and is slaugh- tered according to Islamic specifications are lawful in Shariah. However, skin grafts taken from a nonslaughtered animal carcass or from a living animal are unclean according to Shariah; so, their use is impermissible except in the case of necessity.

Q:109) Is skin graft from pig permissible in Islam?
A: No, grafts from pig skin are not permissible except for dire necessity and where no lawful alternative is available.

Q:110) Is setting up of 'Human Skin Bank' permissible in Islam?
A: Yes, it is permissible subject to the following conditions -

i. The bank is controlled by the state or by a reliable and trustworthy agency supervised by the State,

ii. The stock is proportionate to the real or expected needs,

iii. Surplus human skin remaining after operations is buried as a mark of respect to human remains and are not thrown up with wastes.

Shariya Ruling for Cloning

Q: 111) What is the Fiqh point of view regarding 'transformation' of substances?
A. From the Fiqh point of view ‘transformation’ is defined as “changing the nature of the defiled or forbidden substance to  produce a different substance in name, properties and characteristics”. In common scientific terms, this refers to all new  compounds produced by chemical reaction, such as manufacture of  soap from oils and fats or the decomposition of substances such as fats and oils into various compounds such as fatty acids and glycerol.

Q: 112) Are “transformed” additive substances permissible for consumption?
A. Yes, additive compounds extracted from prohibited animals or defiled substances which have been “transformed”, as mentioned above, may be considered as clean and permissible for consumption or as medicine. However, the chemical components  extracted from prohibited or defiled substances, such as blood or  sewer water that have not undergone a chemical transformation, according to the terms mentioned above, are not permitted for consumption or for use as medicine.

Q: 113) What are the common foodstuffs prohibited due to the presence of defiled or prohibited substances?
A. All foodstuffs containing blood as a primary ingredient, such as blood sausages, black pudding, hamburgers, baby foods, pastries, soups and sauces are prohibited for consumption.

Q: 114) Are additives containing very small amounts of alcohol prohibited?
A. No, additives containing very small amounts of alcohol which are used in foods or medicines, such as colourings, preservatives, emulsifiers and anti-acids are not prohibited, because of its blending with a dominant clean and permissible substance resulting its obliteration.

Q: 115) Can lecithin and cholesterol extracted from defiled non-transformed substances be used?
A. Yes, lecithin and cholesterol extracted from defiled non-transformed substances may be used in food and medicine in very small quantities, having been assimilated into a dominant clean and permissible mixture.

Q: 116) What is the ruling for the use of enzymes obtained from pigs?
A. Enzymes obtained from pigs, such as pepsin and most digestive yeasts used in negligible (infinitesimal) quantities in food and medicine are permissible.

Q: 117) Is the use of heart valves obtained from pigs permissible?
A. Yes, the use of heart of valves obtained from pigs is permissible, as a matter of necessity.

Q: 118). What is Sharia ruling for the use of gold by men?
A. There is no objection in Sharia to use gold by men for the purpose of medical treatment such as dental crown, bridges etc., but not solely for cosmetic or adornment purpose which is not permissible.

Q: 119) What is the Sharia ruling for wearing of silk by men?
A. In principle, the Sharia forbids the wearing of natural silk by men with the exception of medical cases such as allergies, scabies, itching…etc.

Q: 120) What is the Sharia ruling for the use of artificial solvents, carriers and thrusting substances?
A. Artificial solvents, carriers and thrusting substances used in pressurised containers for beneficial or legitimate purposes are permissible. However, if they are used to obtain drugging or hallucinatory effect, through inhalation, they would be impermissible.

Q: 121) What is cloning?
A. Cloning is the production of two or more beings that are complete genetic copies of each other.

Q: 122) How many types of cloning are there?
A. There are two types of cloning :-

  1. Cloning by induced identical twinning: As the fertilized egg splits into two cells, each of them is then induced to make a fresh start and behave as if it were the original fertilized egg. Each half would then grow into separate foetus, and having come from the same fertilized egg, they would be carrying exactly identical genetic components.
  2. Ordinary cloning: This is achieved by injecting a nucleus from a somatic cell of an adult animal into an egg whose nucleus had been removed. The cell would then grow into a foetus that would be a true genetic copy of the adult living animal from which the somatic cell nucleus was taken.

Q: 123) What is the Islamic Scholars’ view regarding cloning by induced identical twinning?
A. The Islamic Scholars have no objection, in principle to this  method of fertilization, but deem it too early to evaluate its advantages and disadvantages, of its immediate benefits is the application of diagnostic methods on either twin or some of its cells to establish their normalcy before introducing into the womb. It could also be useful in treating certain infertility cases, subject to all the controls governing test-tube baby procedures. However, all cases introducing a third party into marriage, whether a womb, an egg, a sperm or a cloning cell are not permissible.

Q: 124) What is the Islamic Scholars’ view regarding ordinary human cloning?
A. Ordinary human cloning, in which the nucleus of a living somatic cell from an individual is placed into the cytoplasm of an egg devoid of its nucleus, is not permitted. If exceptional cases emerge in the future, they should be considered to verify compliance with the Shariah.

Q: 125) What are the risks involved in cloning?
A. The risks include the infringement on the individuality and identity of the person, undermining the stability of the social order, and the destruction of the bases of blood relationships and age-old family ties, recognised by the Islamic Shariah and all other  religions as the foundation of the family and of social order. This would have serious repercussions on the principles governing blood ties, marriage and inheritance, as well as on civil, criminal and other laws. The Islamic Scholars outrightly reject as haram any proposals that would impinge on the legal marriage contract – introducing a third party into it.

Q: 126) What is the Islamic Scholars’ view regarding conducting research on cloning?
A. Islam imposes no restrictions on scientific research, rather considers it a religious duty and encourages it as a means of understanding God’s traditions in His creation. However, Islam advocates the doors of scientific study should not be left wide open for the application of the results of research in the public domain without proper examination by Shariah experts. Not everything that is practicable is necessarily applicable but should be free of any harmful effects and in line with the rules of Shariah.

Q: 127) What steps Muslim countries are obliged to take regarding the undue exploitation of cloning?
A. All Muslim countries are called upon to formulate the necessary legislation to prevent foreign research institutes, organizations and experts from directly or indirectly using Muslim countries for experimentation on human cloning or promoting it. Specialized committees should be set up to look into the ethics of biological research and adopt protocols for study and research in Muslim countries, and prepare a document on foetal rights as a prelude to formulate legislation on the rights of the foetus.

Q: 128) What are the actions which nullify fasting?
A. According to Quran and authentic Sunnah of the prophet (pbuh) three actions nullify fasting: eating, drinking and sexual intercource.

Q: 129) Which type of medications/interventions do not nullify fasting?
A. The following do not nullify fasting –

  1.  Eye and ear drops, and ear wash.
  2.  Nitroglycerine tablets placed under the tongue for the treatment of angina.
  3.  Insertion into the of pessaries, medical ovules, vaginal washes, vaginal speculum and doctor’s or midwife’s fingers during pelvic examination.
  4.  Insertion of urethroscope into man or woman radio-opaque media for X-ray diagnosis or bladder irrigation.
  5.  Tooth drilling, extraction, cleaning or the use of miswak and toothbrush, provided nothing is  swallowed into the stomach.
  6.  Injections through the skin or muscle or veins or joints, with the exception of intravenous feeding.
  7.  Blood donation or receiving blood transfusion.
  8.  Oxygen and anaesthetic gases.
  9.  All substances absorbed into the body through the skin, such as creams, ointments and medical  plaster.
  10.  Drawing blood samples for laboratory testing.
  11.  Catheter and media for arteriography of heart and other organs.
  12.  Endoscopy for diagnostic or intervention purposes.
  13.  Mouth wash, gargle or oral spray, provided nothing is swallowed into the stomach.
  14.  Hysteroscopy or insertion of an intrauterine device.
  15.  Biopsy of the liver or other organs.
  16.  Nose drops, nasal sprays and inhalers.
  17.  Anal injections, anoscopes or digital rectal examination.
  18.  Surgery involving general anaesthetic, if the patient decided to fast.
  19.  Machine or intraperitoneal, renal dialysis.
  20.  Use of gastroscope, provided if does not entail the introduction of liquids or other substances into  the stomach.

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