<Islamset - Question and Answers>
part of our website, we will take responsibility for Fatwas concerning
the issues related to Health, Medicine and its related subjects from the
Islamic point of view. At the same time, if you need more details
you can click here
or click here
issues were discussed by the IOMS, The Fiqh Academy at Jeddah and WHO
in various meetings held between the years 1980 - 2000.
Artificial insemination (Test Tube Babies) is
it lawful or prohibited in Islam?
A: Such practice is lawful under the following conditions:
a) If it only involves a married couple
During the marriage life.
c) Sufficient & meticulous care is taken to avoid lineage confusion
d) The practice is unlawful if it involves an alien party, whether
in the form of semen, an ovum, an embryo or a womb.
If a woman is ovulating but does not have uterus, could she inseminate
and incubate this fertilized ovum in the uterus of another women?
A: According to Islamic Sharea, it is not lawful.
If the above happened, who is the real mother?
A: This fetus has two mothers. One is the owner of
the ova and the other one is the surrogate. According to Islam,
the surrogate is the lawful mother. The Quran says: "If any men among
you divorce their wives by Zihar (calling them mother), they cannot be
their mothers: None can be their mothers except those who gave them birth.
And in fact they use words (both) iniquitous and false: but truly God
is One that blots out (sins), and forgives (Again and again)". --(Al-Mujadila:2)
we have enjoined on man (To be good) to his parents: In travail upon travail
did his mother bear him, and in years twain was his weaning: (hear the
command), show gratitude to Me and to thy parents: to me is (thy final)
goal". (Luqman: 14)
Is the Surgical Contraception (Sterilization) either on individual basis
or on mass level lawful?
A: It is agreed that surgical contraception is lawful
on the individual level in cases of necessity as determined by a trustworthy
Muslim Doctor and when other alternatives have been exhausted. On
the level of the Muslim Nation at large it is unlawful and the scholars
denounce turning sterilization into a general campaign and warns against
its exploitation in demographic wars that aim at turning Muslims into
minorities in their own countries or in the world as a whole.
Is Abortion lawful? What is its condition from the Islamic point
A: The Muslim Jurists and earlier Fiqh Scholars unanimously
forbid abortion. Going over the views expressed by earlier
fiqh scholars, with the keen insight and sound judgment they demonstrate,
and noting that they unanimously forbid abortion after the breathing in
of spirit,i.e. after the first four months of pregnancy, and that they
differ over abortion before spirit is breathed in, with some opting for
categorical prohibition or considering it reprehensible, and other prohibiting
it after the first forty days and allowing it before that, with some difference
over the necessity for justifying reasons; and benefiting from a review
of contemporary medical and scientific advances as established in papers
and by modern medical technology; the seminar concludes that an embryo
is a living organism from the moment of conception, and its life is to
be respected in all its stages, especially after spirit is breathed in.
Aggression against it, in the form of abortion, is unlawful except
in cases of maximum necessity. Some participants, however disagreed
and believe abortion before the fortieth day, particularly when there
is justification, is lawful.
I am a lady. I feel shy whenever I visit any male Medical Doctor.
Could you tell me, whether the medical examination by the other sex is
lawful from the Islamic point of view?
A: It is lawful for a medical member of one sex to look at
the awra ( a prohibited part of body to opposite sex, except face and
hands) of a member of the other sex for purposes of medical examination,
treatment, and medical education. Exposition, however, should be
limited to what the need calls for.
is the individual or national opinion on Fetal Sex Selection from the
Islamic point of view?
A: There was an agreement from the Islamic legal viewpoint is that
fetal sex selection is unlawful when it is practiced at a national level,
while on an individual basis, some of the scholars participating in the
seminar on "Human Reproduction
in Islam" believe that there is nothing legally wrong with the
attempt to fulfill the wish of a married couple to have a boy or a girl
through available medical means, while other scholars believe that it
is unlawful for fear that one sex might outnumber the other.
What is the Islamic view on mixed Human Milk Banks?
A: The setting up of banks of mixed human milk is to be discouraged.
If medical need calls for them, banks of human milk may be set up for
premature babies. A group of participants believe, on the basis of the
opinion of the majority fiqh scholars, that the collection of milk should
be done in a way that guarantees the identification of each donor and
each baby receiver. The nursing should be written down in records that
are kept, and everyone involved should be notified to avoid the marriage
of persons who have a milk relationship entailing the prohibition of their
believe that there is no need to identify the donors and receivers, on
the basis of the opinion of Al-Laith Ibn Sa'd and the scholars of Al-Zhahiriyah
School and their followers, who opine that milk relationships occurs only
when a baby sucks the breast of a milk mother.
(Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome)
What is AIDS?
A: This is an acronym of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
caused by a virus or HIV. It results in extensive destruction of
the body immune system which leads to increasing inability of the body
to resist all types of infection, even those which are not normally associated
How the AIDS virus is transmitted?
A: It is transmitted from one person to another through body
fluids such as sexual fluids (semen, fallopian and vaginal fluids) and
blood. It is , therefore, passed during sexual intercourse among
both heterosexuals and homosexuals, or through the blood in cases of blood
transfusion or via syringes or injection needles.
How does the AIDS virus spread?
A: It spreads by three main causes -
1). By sexual intercourse which accounts for 90% cases. Promiscuity,
sodomy, prostitution and sex with partners affected by venereal diseases
contribute to increase in the rate of AIDS infection.
2). Through blood transfusion or the use of infected needles and
syringes, especially among drug addicts.
3). Through infected mother to unborn babies.
What does the Islam say about the unlawful sexual act?
A: The Prophet Mohammed (PBUH) is reported to have said that
" A person would be devoid of faith when he, or she, is committing
an unlawful sexual act".
What are the Islamic approaches for protection against AIDS?
A: There are three measures recommended by Islam, as part
of its moral code, which are essential for the prevention of AIDS.
These are - (a) marriage, (b) proscription of sexual promiscuity, and
(a) Marriage: This is an effective means
to protect individuals especially young people, from indulging in illicit
sexual activity. The teachings of Prophet Mohammed (PBUH) urge Muslims
to make marriage affordable and easy for all members of society.
He said: "When a man comes to you seeking marriage and if you are
happy with his religious and moral integrity and honesty, give him your
daughter; otherwise, immorality and corruption would spread among you
(b) Proscribing promiscuity: This is achieved through the following
(i) Urging men and women to control their sexual urge and avoid
the lewd gaze which could rouse sexual desires and lead to unlawful sexual
contact. Allah says in the Quran: "Tell the believing men and
women to lower their gaze and protect their chastity, for that is bound
to render them purer. Allah is aware of all that they do."
(ii) Advising women to dress modestly in public. Allah instructs
the Prophet (PBUH) to tell believing women: "Not to show their adornments,
except those that are ordinarily outward, and to cover their bosoms with
their veil". (An Noor: 31). They are also urged: "Not
to walk tantalizingly, with the intention of revealing their beauty."
(An-Noor: 31). Women are taught to wear loose, plain and non-transparent
clothes that preserve and enhance their dignity and modesty.
(iii) Discouraging men and women who are not barred from marrying
from being together on their own in private, in order to avoid the temptation
of sexual attraction.
(iv) Fighting permissiveness and loose social mingling between the
sexes outside the inner family circle.
(v) Urging boys and girls as they come of age not to invade the privacy
of their elders and peers without their permission. Allah says in
the Quran: "Believers, do not enter the dwellings of others until
you announce your presence and have greeted those inside them."
(vi) Forbidding all provocative activities such as pornography,
provocative singing, dancing, music and films, that tantalize and arouse
sensual feelings. Allah says in the Quran: "Some people indulge
in frivolous activity, so that they may, in their ignorance, lead others
away from the path of Allah and hold it up in ridicule. These will
receive a shaming punishment." (Luqman: 6).
(c) Effective deterrence: When education and upbringing
fail and other preventive methods prove ineffective in stamping out permissive
behaviour in society, resort must then be made to punishment, as a deterrence
to others. However, such punishments must be prescribed under very
stringent conditions of proof. In case of illicit sexual acts, for
example, punishment cannot be meted out without either a full admission
by the accused, or the unanimous testimony of four eye witnesses who must
agree on every detail of the misdemeanour.
According to Quran, illicit sexual acts are punishable by one hundred
lashes for offenders. It says: "Each woman or man who engages
in illicit sexual acts shall be given a hundred lashes. Let no pity
for them dissuade you from obeying God 's commands, if you truly believe
in God and the Last Day and let their punishment be witnessed by crowd
of believers." (An-Noor: 2)
What is the view of Islam on Sodomy and homosexual acts?
A: Quran severely condemns these practices. Allah says:
"when our judgment came to pass we turned it (the city of Sodom)
upside down and showered it with a torrent of claystones bearing the tokens
of your Lord." (Hud: 82-83)
What is the Islamic Punishment for deliberate transmission of AIDS?
A: As no cure from the AIDS is, as yet, available, the premediated
transmission of the virus is tantamount to poisoning/killing. And, killing
with insidious means is a capital offence, and is not different from killing
with a material instrument, and thus leads to capital punishment.
What is the Islamic point of view regarding the marriage involving AIDS
A: Any one who knows that he or she is an AIDS carrier must not
enter a marriage relationship without disclosing the facts, for transmitting
the disease is criminal and hiding the fact would be fraudulent, and both
acts are objectionable.
Is annulment of marriage permissible in Islam if the infection is discovered
A: Yes, Islamic law allows the annulment of marriage under such
Should an infected couple be allowed to marry?
A: They may be allowed to marry whether they choose to use condome
during sexual intercourse or not. But since the risk of passing the virus
from the mother to her baby is high, they should take all precautions
to prevent conception.
there right of sexual intercourse among infected spouses?
A: If one of the spouses is an AIDS patient, the other can refuse
sexual intercourse. However, if healthy spouse agrees, then adequate precaution
must be taken to reduce the risk of infection and conception.
Has the healthy spouse right to divorce or separation?
A: Yes, either spouse has the right to separate from another who
is an AIDS carrier, whether the infection occurs before or after marriage.
What are the obligations of separation of spouses?
A: If the wife is the carrier, she will not receive entitlements
of a divorced wife. The husband has the full right to reclaim the dowry
he had paid or its equivalent if the marriage had already been consummated.
However, if the husband is the carrier, the wife will receive her deferred
dowry and the muta'ah or compensation.
Can an AIDS-infected fetus be aborted?
A: No, the baby cannot be aborted, as the AIDS sufferer should
not be deprived of treatment and whose life must not be deliberately terminated.
Should a baby be aborted for the sake of an AIDS infected mother?
A: If the baby's continued presence in the womb threatens mother's
life, the baby may be sacrificed for the sake of the mother because the
baby's chance of life is much less than that of the mother.
an AIDS suffering mother nurse her healthy baby?
A: As long as the mother takes the necessary precautions of hygiene
and health care vital to prevent transmission of AIDS Virus, she can nurse
Are the AIDS sufferers terminally ill patients?
A: No, they cannot be considered terminally ill until the full
symptoms of the disease are apparent and the patients begin to display
signs of total disability and are no longer able to lead reasonably normal
life, subsequently culminating in death.
OF THE AGED PERSONS
26) What is the Islamic concept of the care of aged?
A: Islam takes care of old age in a manner that maintains the dignity.
This dignity includes the provision of sufficient income , food, health
care, accommodation and social relationship.
Who is responsible for taking care of aged?
A: The duty of taking care of the old is the responsibility of
sons and daughters. Any kind of disobeyance to parents, be considered
as a sinful act, and will be punished severely by God.
If a person does not have sons and daughters, who will take care of him
during his old days?
A: If the old man has no sons and daughters, then his grandsons
and/or granddaughters must support him. If there are no children or grandchildren,
then, according to the Hanifite, the relatives must support the aged person.
What is the view of Islam regarding social security care for the aged?
A: Islamic jurisprudence clearly states the rights of the ageing
and needy people. The rich people must provide assistance to the poor.
The governor must compel them to do so if the share of the poor from Zakat
could not support them. The resolution of the social security for the
aged and sick was imposed by Islam and carried out by the Caliphates through
the Islamic history.
What does the Islamic jurisprudence suggest to help the needy?
A: Islamic jurisprudence has suggested various means to take care
of the needy. These include - (a) obligatory donations (Sadaqa), (b) Kaffara,
which is obligatory in certain cases by Islamic law, (c) Optional donations,
and (d) Awqaf (endowments).
What does Quran say about the duty of children towards parents?
A: It is imperative as Allah says: "Worship Allah and join
none with Him in worship, and do good to parents"..... (Al-Nisaa:
36). "And your Lord has decreed that you worship none but Him and
that you be dutiful to your parents ....." (Al-Israa: 23).
Has the father right to son's property?
A: Yes. This is proven by the Prophet's (PBUH) tradition. A man
came to the Prophet (PBUH) and said: " I have funds, property and
children and my father is in need". The Prophet (PBUH) answered:
" you and your property belong to your father".
AND END OF HUMAN LIFE
33) What does the Quran say about the inception of human life?
A: In the Surah entitled Al-Mu'minun, Allah says: " We first
make man from an essence of clay: Then place him a drop of sperm, in a
safe enclosure. Then we create out of the drop of sperm a germ-cell and
we create out of the embryonic lump bones, and then we clothe the bones
with flesh, then we bring all this into being as a new creation. Blessed
is God, the noblest of creators. (Al-Mu'minun: 12-14).
What is the Prophet Mohammed's (PBUH) view about the inception of human
A: The Prophet (PBUH) is quoted to have said: "The creation
of each one of you is brought together in the belly of his mother for
forty days in the form of a drop of sperm, then for a similar period,
he is a germ-cell, then for another forty days, he is an embryonic lump,
then angel is sent to him to breathe spirit into him, and is ordered to
write down four words: its livelihood, life duration, career, whether
it is to be miserable or happy".
What is the general concept of the inception of life?
A: The inception of life occurs with the union of a sperm and an
ovum, forming a zygote which carries the full genetic code of the human
race in general and of the particular individual, who is different from
all others throughout the ages. The zygote begins a process of cleavage
that yields a growing and developing embryo, which progresses through
the stages of gestation towards birth.
When does a zygote deserves to be respected?
A: From the moment a zygote settles inside human body, it deserves
a unanimously recognized degree of respect, and a number of legal stipulations
apply to it.
When does the embryo acquires greater sanctity?
A: When the embryo arrives at the spirit-breathing stage, the time
of which is subject to controversy, being either 40 or 120 days, the fetus
acquires greater sanctity, as all scholars agree, and additional legal
stipulations apply to it.
What is the most important legal stipulation which applies to the fetus?
A: Among the most important of these stipulations is that which
governs abortion as pointed out in Article 7 of the "Recommendations
of the Seminar on Reproduction in Islam".
Is there any difficulty in recognizing death in majority of cases?
A: In the majority of cases, there is no difficulty in recognizing
the occurrence of death through conventional signs or as a result of external
medical observation which notes the absence of the signs that distinguish
the living from the dead.
What is the importance of diagnosing death in exceptional cases?
A: A few cases, which are usually under careful and comprehensive
medical observation at hospitals, specialized medical centers and intensive
care units, have particular importance because there is an urgent need
to diagnose them as dead, although the body still shows the signs which
have been always accepted as signs of life, whether these signs are naturally
displayed by some organs or result from the resuscitation equipment applied
to the patient.
What is the opinion of Fiqh scholars regarding death?
A: The seminar has discussed the signs of death listed by Fiqh
reference work and discovered that, in the absence of Quran or Traditional
Text which explicitly defines death, these opinions reflect the medical
knowledge available at that time. Because, the diagnosis and the signs
of death have always been a medical matter, on the basis of which Fiqh
scholars make legal rulings, participating physicians presented the current
medical view concerning the occurrence of death.
What are the medical views for proclaiming death?
A: The decisive factor proclaiming the death is the lifelessness
of the area of brain that is responsible for vital body functions, which
is expressed as death of brain stem. Any other vital organ or function,
such as heart or respiration, may temporarily stop, but as long as the
brain stem is alive, it can be revived. The lives of a number of patients
are saved this way. When, however, the brain stem itself has died, there
is no hope of saving the patient.
What is the view of Fiqh scholars regarding brain stem death?
A: Based on the medical opinion, the Fiqh scholars are inclined
to view that when it is ascertained that a human being has reached the
stage of brain stem death, he is considered to have withdrawn from life,
and certain rulings of the dead are applicable to him, in analogy, though
with the evident difference, with what Fiqh books say about an injured
person who has reached the stage known as that of the "slain".
As for the remaining rulings that concern the dead, the Fiqh scholars
participating in the seminar, prefer their postponement until all major
systems of the body come to a stop.
Is it lawful to remove the resuscitation equipment?
A: Yes, when the death of the brain stem is certified by a committee
of medical specialists, it is lawful to remove the resuscitation equipment.
What are the signs signifying death?
A: An individual is considered dead in one of the following two
irreversible cessation of respiratory and cardiovascular system.
(ii) Complete irreversible cessation of functions of the brain including
the brain stem..
should be confirmed by the accepted medical standards.
What are the preconditions necessary before considering the diagnosis
of brain death?
A: The person must be in continuous deep uninterrupted coma for
at least for six hours, without any attempt at spontaneous breathing.
The cause of coma can be explained by extensive damage to the structure
of brain, such as severe traumatic concussion, massive intracranial hemorrhage,
after intracranial surgery, a large intracranial tumour or obstructed
blood supply to the brain, confirmed by adequate diagnostic measures.
What is the Islamic definition of death?
A: Imam Ghazali and others define death as the departure of the
spirit, that is its leaving the body after having dwelled in it. This
departure may have many causes. The common saying goes "causes vary,
but death is the same".
What human spirit is?
A: Spirit is the nicely in a human being that has all knowledge
and perception. It is a wonderous Divine concern, the reality of which
is something most minds are unable to understand.
What does the empirical sciences say about spirit?
A: The spirit can never be subject to empirical sciences because
spirit is something the knowledge of which God has kept to Himself and
no one should seek to find about it more than the fact that it exists.
LIFE STYLES AND THIER IMPACT ON HEALTH
50) What is the correlation between faith and lifestyles?
A: It is evident that faith is the basis and essence of lifestyles
and the axis around which innumerable positive phenomena turn in all aspects
of life, including physical, psychological and spiritual health and the
development and enrichment of human life, in general.
What is the importance of Islamic lifestyles?
A: Islam, as defined in the Quran, in the natural course of life
which God has bestowed on humanity. Hence, adhering to Islamic lifestyles
is, in itself, a realization of the true nature of human being, and ensures
harmony with the laws of God in body and soul, in the individual, the
family and community, and between human beings and their environment.
Is health a blessing from God?
A: Yes, health is one of the greatest blessings God gave to human
beings; in fact it is the greatest after the blessing of faith. Alongwith
security and basic minimum needs, health is the guarantee of good life.
What are the Prophet's (PBUH) views about good health?
A: The Prophet (PBUH) said:
- "There are two blessings which people do not appreciate: health
- " No blessing other than faith is better than health".
- " He who has securing in his community group and is healthy in
body and has his daily sustenance, is as if he had all the world at his
How to preserve good health?
A: Preservation of the blessing of health and increasing it come
through being grateful through working towards preserving and promoting
it, through avoiding any behaviour that leads to its neglect or change
as those bring about the disappearance of health and punishment through
What does the Quran says about preserving good health?
A: The Quran said:
- " If you are grateful, I will add more (favours) unto you (14:7).
- " Because God will never change the grace which has bestowed on
a people until they change themselves (8:53).
- "He that tampers with the boon of God after it has been bestowed
on him shall find that God is stern in retribution (2:211).
What are the general guidelines suggested by Islam to preserve and promote
A: The Islam suggests various guidelines to preserve and promote
good health. These include -
(i) Hygiene of the self and the surroundings.
(ii) Proper food
(iii) Proper clothing
(v) Rearing of children
(vi) Traveling precautions
(vii) Forbidding the psychotropic agents and alcohol
(viii) Prohibition of gambling
(ix) Conservation of environment
(x) Rights of the elderly, etc. etc.
more details, please click here.
RULING ON ANIMAL SLAUGHTER
57) : What is the Arabic term for the correct method of animal slaughter?
A: The correct method of animal slaughter according to the requirements
of Islamic religion is called "Tazkiya".
What are the ways of animal slaughter in Islam?
A: The animals are slaughtered by one of the following three ways:-
Slitting of animal's throat, oesophagus and jugular veins. It is mostly
used on sheep, goat, cows and birds but could also be used on other animals.
Stabbing the animal in the throat and cutting downward to the top of the
chest. This is mainly used for camels and other such large animals, but
could also be used for cows.
Causing a physical wound to an unwieldy animal, whether a domestic
but untamed animal or a wild one that is permissible for hunting.
Is it necessary to invoke the name of God over the animal that is intended
A: Yes, it is necessary. God says in the Quran: "Eat of that
(meat) over which the name of God has been invoked" (6:118) and,
"Do not eat that (meat) over which the name of God has not been invoked"
How is the name of God invoked?
A: This is done by reciting the following Arabic Phrase: "bismillah
allahu akbar", which means " In the name of God; God is Greatest,
or words to that effect.
Which meat is forbidden in Islam?
A: God says in the Quran: "Say [You, Muhammad]: I find nothing
in what has been revealed to me that forbids men to eat any food except
carrion, split blood, swine flesh, for these are unclean, or an abomination
over which a name other than that of God had been invoked" (6:145),
and also says "He (God) has forbidden you carrion, blood, swine flesh
and that (meat) over which a name other than that of God has been invoked"
God also says
in the Quran: "You are forbidden (the consumption) of carrion, blood,
swine flesh, that (meat) over which a name other than that of God has
been invoked, (the meat of ) strangled animals, those that have fallen,
been beaten or rammed (or gorged by other animals) to death, those mangled
(or devoured) by beasts of prey, save those which you slaughter in time;
and those sacrificed to idols" (5:3).
Is the forbidden meat permitted under exceptional circumstances?
A: Yes, God says in the Quran: "Whosoever is forced by hunger,
not intending to commit sin, (to eat of what is forbidden), will find
God forgiving and merciful" (5:3). " God has set out for you
in full detail what has been forbidden to you, unless you are compelled
thereto" (6:119). "Whoever is compelled (to eat forbidden meat)
through necessity, neither craving nor transgressing, shall incur no offense".
further details, please click here.
HEALTH - AN ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE
63) What does Islam say about maintaining clean environment?
A: The Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) urged the people to clean and not pollute
their environment. He (PBUH) said: "To clear the road of all sources
of harm is a benefaction". Benefaction, or sadaqa, is a term used
in Islam to refer to what we call today civilized behaviour or civilized
conduct, because as the derivation of the Arabic word suggests, it is
true evidence that an individual belongs to the civilized Muslim community.
(PBUH) guidance also includes his injunction, "Let no one urinate
in stagnant water". The Prophet (PBUH) has forbidden anyone to urinate
where he bathes". He used to say: "Avoid the two actions that
bring peoples curses!" He was asked: "What are these?"
"The one who defecates in the road and the shade used by others".
What does Islam tell against exploiting environment?
A: God draws our attentions to what may occur if humans, indifferent
to the various types of balance, go too far in exploiting the environment,
which is what we are witnessing today. He says: "If God were to bestow
abundance upon His servants, they would behave on the earth with wanton
insolence" (42:27). He also says: " Do not follow the counsel
of those who are given to excesses, those spread corruption on earth instead
of setting things to rights" ( 26: 151-152). And He says: "Had
the Truth been in accordance with their desires, certainly heavens and
the earth would have been corrupted" (23:71).
Is excessive exploitation of environment punishable by God?
A: Yes, excessive exploitation of environment with no check or control
is an injustice of the worst type. It is ingratitude for the favours bestowed
by God, because gratitude for a favour means that one should maintain
and guard it. God gives the example of a town which..." was once
safe and secure. Its sustenance came to it in abundance from every quarter.
But it was ungrateful for God's favours. Therefore, He afflicted it with
famine and fear of what it did" (16:112). Speaking of similar towns,
God says: "Such is the scourge of your Lord when he chastises sinful
towns. Harrowing and severe is His punishment" (11:102). But "God
was not unjust in treating them (29:40). It were they who used to "transgress
in the earth and act unjustly...Mankind, it is against your own souls
that your offenses rebound" (10:23). God does not stop at warning
against corruption; he also points out the right way. He instructs the
Prophet (PBUH) "Say: My Lord has commanded you to be just" (7:
29), meaning to be fair and moderate in all matters without going into
What are the views of the Prophet (PBUH) about plantation?
A: The Prophet (PBUH) sought to encourage agriculture in order to
increase vegetation resources and enhance benevolent environment. He (PBUH)
said: "Whenever a Muslim plants or grows a sapling or a plant, and
a human being, a beast, or anything else feeds upon it, it is counted
for him as an act of benevolence".
Did the Prophet (PBUH) establish environmental ?
A: Yes. The Prophet (PBUH) was the first to establish environmental
reservations, where trees could not be cut down and animals could not
be killed. "God's messenger protected the whole Medina, section by
section, where no tree could be uprooted and nothing bigger than what
can be used to drive a camel could be cut". He also said: "I
forbid the trees between the two lavas of Medina to be cut down and the
game to be killed". Referring to the Wajj Valley in Taif, he said,
"The game and trees of Wajj are forbidden".
here for more details.
AND SANITATION IN ISLAM
68) What importance Islam gives to personal cleanliness?
A: Islam attaches great importance to cleanliness. This is clearly
apparent in Islamic legislation which makes ablution and bathing a duty.
Islam also requires to wash our hands before and after meals, and to wash
our clothes to purify them. All these obligations are related to individual
and collective acts of worship, emphasizing the Islamic concept which
considers man's body and soul two parts of a single entity which are mutually
Is cleanliness a prerequisite for prayers?
A: Yes. God has made ablution an essential preliminary for prayers.
He explains that: "God does not want to impose any hardship on you,
but wants to make you pure" (5:6). Ablution is a divine obligation
to be undertaken by everyone who wishes to pray. God says in the Quran:
" Believers, when you prepare for prayer, wash your faces and your
hands upto elbow, and wipe your heads and wash your feet up to the ankles
(5:6). The Prophet (PBUH): "God does not accept any prayers which
have not been preceded by ablution".
Are Muslims urged to perform ablution for purposes other than prayers?
A: Yes. A person who is in a state of ceremonial impurity, i.e. janaba,
is encouraged to perform ablution if he wants to eat or sleep, though
the state of janaba required taking bath in which one washes the entire
body. However, Islam encourages a person in such a state to perform ablution
if he delays taking bath. The Prophet (PBUH) was asked whether a person
in a state of ceremonial impurity may sleep, eat or drink. He answered:
Yes, if he performs ablution in the same manner as when he wants to pray".
requires a man who has had sexual intercourse with his wife and wants
to do so again to perform ablution in the interval. According to an authentic
hadith: "If any one of you has had intercourse with his wife, and
wants to repeat it, he should perform ablution".
also recommended to perform ablution before going to bed, and when one
is in a state of anger or has touched or carried a dead person, and before
reciting the Quran or reading the hadith, and for attending Islamic lessons,
entering a mosque, calling for prayer, giving a sermon or visiting a graveyard.
Is taking a bath considered obligatory in Islam?
A: Yes, taking a bath is considered obligatory in Islam on a number
of occasions, including the end of menstruation and post natal discharge,
after sexual intercourse and wet dreams. In this connection, God says
in the Quran: "If you are in a state of ceremonial impurity, purify
yourself" (5:6). He also says: "Believers, do not come near
prayers when you are drunk until you are aware of what you are saying,
nor when you are in a state of ceremonial impurity, except during traveling,
until you have taken a bath" (4:43).
its followers to take special care to keep themselves clean by taking
bath regularly, even in the absence of above causes. A Muslim is required
to take bath before the weekly Friday prayer and for attending prayer
on the two annual Islamic feasts. It is also recommended to bath frequently
during the pilgrimage and the Umra and on such occasions as entering Mecca,
prayer for rainfall, when there is an eclipse, on regaining consciousness
after fainting, after having washed the body of a dead person, when one
feels that one's body odour is becoming unpleasant, before retiring to
a mosque for mediation and prayer, when entering Medina and before attending
here for more details
RULING ON SMOKING
72) Is smoking hazardous to health?
A: The unanimous answer is 'yes'. In 1962, British Royal College of
Physicians established a link between smoking and bad health. In 1970,
a senior medical consultant in the USA gave strong health warnings that
"smoking is harmful to health". In 1978, WHO experts announced
that smoking is a major cause of ill health and premature death; but this
is avoidable by giving up smoking or not smoking at all.
How many people die of smoking-related diseases each year?
A: Around 2.5 million people die each year worldwide due to smoking
related diseases, a rate of one death every 13 second.
What is the death rate due to various smoking related diseases?
A: Smoking-related diseases contribute to a large proportion of total
death worldwide. For instance, they contribute to 30% in Cuba, 25% in
the USA, 15-20% in the UK. Translated into figures, these rates give 400,000
deaths in the USA, 140,000 in the Federal Republic of Germany, 100,000
in the UK, 70,000 in Italy and 23,000 in Australia.
What is passive smoking?
A: Passive smoking refers to involuntary inhalation by nonsmokers
of other people's cigarette smoke whether in office, on public transport
or in the home. It is estimated to be responsible for 4000 to 5000 deaths
every year in the USA, around 1000 in Britain and 500 in Canada, while
women who are nonsmokers but married to smokers are much greater risk
of contracting lung cancer than those married to non smokers.
What is the Islamic ruling on smoking?
A: It is abundantly clear, that sooner or later, smoking in whichever
form and by whichever means, causes extensive health and financial damage
to smokers. It is also the cause of variety of diseases. Consequently,
and on the evidence alone, smoking would be forbidden and should in no
way be practiced by Muslims. Furthermore, the obligation to preserve one's
health and wealth, as well as that of society as a whole, and medical
evidence now on the dangers of smoking, further support this view. God
says: "Eat and drink but never dissipate" (7:31). He also says:
"But squander not your wealth in the manner of a standthrift. Verily
squanderers are Satan's brothers" (17:27), "And do not with
your hands cast yourselves into destruction" (2:195).
Is smoking haram in Islam?
A: Yes, Smoking is haram in Islam, and it is the duty of every Muslim
to fight this harmful and deadly habit.
Can growing and trading of tobacco be considered haram?
A: Yes, in view of the harm caused by tobacco, growing, trading in
and smoking of tobacco are judged to be haram. The Prophet (PBUH) is reported
to have said, "Do not harm yourselves or others". Furthermore,
tobacco is unwholesome and God says in the Quran that the Prophet (PBUH)
"enjoins upon them that which is good and pure and forbids them that
which is unwholesome".
What does the Prophet's (PBUH) about the unpleasant smell (of smoke)?
A: The unpleasant smell of smoke annoys not only nonsmokers but the
honoured angels as well. Islam forbids annoying others by offensive smells.
The Messenger of God (PBUH) says: "Let him keep away from us; let
him keep away from our mosque; let him stay home; he whose breath reeks
of garlic or onion". The smell of smoke is not less offensive than
that of garlic or onion. That the angels should not be annoyed by human
beings is manifest in the following saying by the Prophet (PBUH): "The
angels are annoyed by the same things that annoy human beings". The
Prophet (PBUH) speaks forcibly against causing annoyance to other Muslims:
"The one who annoys a Muslim is annoying me; and the one annoys me
here for more information
RULING ON CIRCUMCISION
80) What is male circumcision in Islamic Law?
A: In Islamic law, circumcision is the removal of skin flap which
covers the balances.
Is male circumcision obligatory in Islam?
A: Yes, it is obligatory in Islam.
What has the Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) said about male circumcision?
A: The Prophet (PBUH) said that "Sound human nature is in
five things: circumcision, removal of pubic hair, plucking of armpit hair,
trimming of moustache, and cutting of nails".
What are the advantages of male circumcision?
A: By circumcision, the body is relieved of apocket where dirt, germs
and fungi accumulate and a focus of impurity and offensive smell. Several
medical studies have concluded that the occurrence of inflammation of
male genitals is higher among men who have not been circumcised, and that
infection with sexually transmitted diseases such as syphilis, gonorrhoea,
and particularly AIDS, is more common among them. In addition, the incidence
of male genital cancer is reduced by circumcision, and th erate of occurrence
of cervical cancer among married women is less in th ecase of the wives
of circumcised men.
What is the appropriate for male circumcision?
A: There are two peiods for it. The first is the time of puberty,
and the other is any time before that. The seventh day after birth is
chosen as the proper date for circumcision, unless the baby is too weak
to take it. Then it is postponed until the child can go through it.
What are the harms caused by female circumcision?
A: Female circumcision, and infibulation in particular, has severe
consequences leading to terrible psychological effect, causing depression,
nervous tension, and anxiety. It weakens the sexual desire and becomes
major obstacle in the way of her sexual satisfaction, spoiling her marital
life. It may also cause infection, and result in sterility or difficult
Is female circumcision legitimate under Islamic law?
A: No, it cannot be legitimate under Islamic law, particularly
since nothing that recommends it is definitely established as said by
the Prophet (PBUH). It is, however, estabished that he (PBUH) has said:
" Do not harm yourself or others". This hadith is one of the
basic principles of True Religion. Thus, female circumcision is nether
required not it is an obligation nor a Sunna.
What is genetic fingerprint?
A: Genetic fingerprint is a unique and special pattern of genetic
structure reflected in each cell of every individual of either sex. This
unique pattern is not shared with any other human being at any time, and
is a categorical proof of biological parentage and identity, particularly
for the purposes of forensic medicine.
What is the view of Islamic scholars regarding genetic fingerprint?
A: Genetic fingerprint is approved by majority of Islamic scholars
for proving lineage where there is a dispute. It has a better claim to
be considered as valid evidence, ahead of qiyafah (tracing a person's
ancestry through features and resemblance), and should be accepted as
a proof or evidence in cases of dispute over the parentage of person with
unknown parentage, should other evidence be lacking or of equal validity.
What is the Islamic view regarding the validity of genetic fingerprint
in cases of acknowledged parentage?
A: The acknowledgement of parentage of someone with unknown lineage
is an indisputable right of a person, provided that it meets the conditions
established in this regard. Consequently, it is not open to the acknowledging
parent to go back on his claim and deny parentage. No denial of the acknowledged
person's lineage by any one of the acknowledging parent's children is
admissible. Nor is there any validity for the genetic fingerprint in denying
such a lineage.
What is the Islamic view regarding the validity of genetic fingerprint
in cases of acknowledged brotherhood?
A: In a case where only some sibling acknowledging the brotherhood
of a person with unknown parentage, such acknowledgement is not binding
on the rest of siblings and does not constitute an absolute evidence of
lineage. Moreover, such an acknowledgement affects only the acknowledging
siblings in respect of their shares of inheritence. The genetic fingerprint
may not be taken as valid evidence in such cases.
What is the Islamic view concerning the evidence to prove the motherhood
of a certain child?
A: The Islamic scholars are thoroughly studying the issue, and their
views are expected to be known shortly.
What is Islamic view regarding the validity of genetic fingerprint regarding
the 'marital bed'?
A: Genetic fingerprint is not considered valid evidence of 'marital
bed'. Marriage is proven only according to established Islamic rules.
What are the essential conditions in any analysis of genetic fingerprint?
A: The following conditions are essential:-
be carried out by permission of the concerned judge,
(ii) Should be conducted two time atleast in more than one accredited
laboratory, none of the laboratories that conduct the analysis should
be aware of the result obtained by another laboratory,
(iii) These laboratories should prefrerably belong tyo the government.
If resort has to be made to private laboratories, it must be assured that
these laboratories meet the universally recognized conditions and standards
of excellence in this field.
(iv) The integrity and professional ability of the personnel working in
the laboratory should be of high standard, and none of them should be
a relative, a friend, an enemy of any party of dispute or have any interest
with any party nor have been convicted of any moral or ethical offense.
USE OF UNLAWFUL OR JURIDICALLY UNCLEAN SUBSTANCES IN FOOD AND MEDICINE
What are the general principles in Islam concerning diet and therapy?
A: Every Muslim
is under obligation to abide by the rulings of Islamic Shariah, especially
in the areas of food and medicine, which is conducive to a healthy life
style in diet and therapy. Allah Almighty, out of His infinite Mercy and
Providence, has granted us concessions in cases of dire and ordinary needs
which includes the important principle - "Necessities overrule prohibitions".
Q:95)What is the basic
rule in Islam regarding juridically unclean substances?
A: The basic
rule is that all things are lawful unless specifically prohibited. Similarly
all things are juridically clean except those specified otherwise. Prohibition
of a food or drink need not necessarily mean that is it juridically unclean.
Q:96) Is alcohol juridically
A: Yes, alcohol
is juridically clean, on the basis of things that are juridically unclean.
This applies whether it is pure or diluted, giving preference to the view
that the uncleanliness of wine and other intoxicants or alcoholic beverages
is ideational rather than physical.
Q:97). Can alcohol
be used as antiseptic or disinfectant?
A: Yes, alcohol
can be used as antiseptic or disinfectant for wounds or surgical instruments.
Q:98) What is the Islamic
view regarding using of perfumes or scents containing alcohol as a solvent?
A: There is no
harm in using perfumes or scents (e.g. Eau de Cologne) in which alcohol
is used as a solvent for volatile fragrant or aromatic substances or in
using creams which contain alcohol. But this ruling does not apply for
wine or other alcoholic drinks, for their use is initially prohibited.
Q:99) Is it prohibited
to take alcohol containing medicines?
A: There is no prohibition
to using medicines currently in production containing a very small amount
of alcohol for the purpose of preservation or dissolution and not for
sedation, until an alternative is available to prepare alcohol-free medicine.
Q:100) What is the
Islamic view for eating food containing little amount of wine/alcohol?
A: Foods containing
even a very little amount of wine or alcohol is prohibited, including
chocolates and drinks or foods tinged with alcohol. The Sharia rules that
"what intoxicates if given abundantly is prohibited even in the smallest
dose". The rule of exceptional permissibility is not applicable here due
to the lack of the factor of necessity.
Q:101) Is it permissible
to take foods where a tiny amount of alcohol is used as a solvent for
A: Yes, it is permissible
to take foods where a tiny amount of alcohol is used for the purpose of
dissolving materials which are insoluble in water such as colour makers,
preservatives etc. The principle on which this permission is based is
'General Inescapable Necessity (Umum al-Balwa). This apart, it is also
a factor that most of the alcohol added gets evaporated during the process
Q:102) What is the
Islamic view regarding foodstuffs containing pig fat?
containing pig fat which does not undergo denaturation, eg. some varieties
of cheese, vegetable oil/lubricant, butter, biscuit, chocolate, cream
and ice-cream etc., are prohibited on account of the consensus of scholars
on the uncleanliness of the pig and impermissibility of its eating. Obviously,
a situation warranting an exception due to "necessity" does not usually
Q:103) Is it permissible
to use insulin obtained from pig?
A: Yes, it is permissible
to treat diabetes patients with insulin obtained from a pig source because
of "necessity" provided the relevant rules and principles of Shariah are
Q:104) What is the
Shariah ruling for the use of originally deemed to be unclean material
transformed into entirely different material?
"Transformation" i.e. the process that causes an object to change into
another, totally different in properties and characters, turns the unclean,
or what is deemed to be unclean, into a clean object, and therefore turns
prohibited things into things permissible by the Shariah.
Under this ruling following
i. Gelatine made from unclean
animal's bones, skin and tendons is clean and permissible for consumption.
ii. Soap produced by treating
and transforming pig fat or fat obtained from dead animal turns into a
clean substance by the process of transformation and therefore using soap
iii. Cheese processed with
rennet, obtained from animals which are dead but are permissible to eat,
is clean and its eating is permissible.
iv. Ointments, creams and
cosmetics which contain pig fat are all unclean. Their use is impermissible
in Shariah except when transformation (of the material into one of totally
different properties) is ensured.
Is skin grafting permissible in Islam?
Yes, it is permissible subject to the fulfilment of certain conditions.
Q:106) What are the
conditions which make the skin grafting permissible in Islam?
conditions are necessary for the permissibility of skin grafting -
i. The skin transplantation
is the only effective method of treatment.
ii. The harm, if any, caused
to the donor, in case of donation, by the process of removal is within
the standard acceptable limits.
iii. The operation is promising
i.e. the likelihood of success is far more than that of failure.
iv. The skin is not acquired
by sale, intimidation or deception. However, if no volunteer is available
then there is no objection to obtaining necessary skin in exchange of
Q:107) Are the patches
of skin obtained from the person undergoing trans- plantation or another
human, live or dead, juridically clean?
A: Yes, these patches
are juridically clean according to Shariah.
Q:108) Is skin graft
from an animal lawful?
A: Yes, skin
grafts from an animal which is lawful to eat and is slaugh- tered according
to Islamic specifications are lawful in Shariah. However, skin grafts
taken from a nonslaughtered animal carcass or from a living animal are
unclean according to Shariah; so, their use is impermissible except in
the case of necessity.
Q:109) Is skin graft
from pig permissible in Islam?
A: No, grafts
from pig skin are not permissible except for dire necessity and where
no lawful alternative is available.
Q:110) Is setting
up of 'Human Skin Bank' permissible in Islam?
A: Yes, it is permissible
subject to the following conditions -
i. The bank is controlled
by the state or by a reliable and trustworthy agency supervised by the
ii. The stock is proportionate
to the real or expected needs,
iii. Surplus human skin remaining
after operations is buried as a mark of respect to human remains and are
not thrown up with wastes.
Ruling for Cloning
Q: 111) What
is the Fiqh point of view regarding 'transformation' of substances?
the Fiqh point of view ‘transformation’ is defined as “changing the
nature of the defiled or forbidden substance to produce a different
substance in name, properties and characteristics”. In common scientific
terms, this refers to all new compounds produced by chemical reaction,
such as manufacture of soap from oils and fats or the decomposition
of substances such as fats and oils into various compounds such as fatty
acids and glycerol.
Q: 112) Are
“transformed” additive substances permissible for consumption?
additive compounds extracted from prohibited animals or defiled substances
which have been “transformed”, as mentioned above, may be considered as
clean and permissible for consumption or as medicine. However, the chemical
components extracted from prohibited or defiled substances, such
as blood or sewer water that have not undergone a chemical transformation,
according to the terms mentioned above, are not permitted for consumption
or for use as medicine.
Q: 113) What
are the common foodstuffs prohibited due to the presence of defiled or
foodstuffs containing blood as a primary ingredient, such as blood sausages,
black pudding, hamburgers, baby foods, pastries, soups and sauces are
prohibited for consumption.
Q: 114) Are
additives containing very small amounts of alcohol prohibited?
additives containing very small amounts of alcohol which are used in foods
or medicines, such as colourings, preservatives, emulsifiers and anti-acids
are not prohibited, because of its blending with a dominant clean and
permissible substance resulting its obliteration.
Q: 115) Can
lecithin and cholesterol extracted from defiled non-transformed substances
lecithin and cholesterol extracted from defiled non-transformed substances
may be used in food and medicine in very small quantities, having been
assimilated into a dominant clean and permissible mixture.
Q: 116) What is
the ruling for the use of enzymes obtained from pigs?
obtained from pigs, such as pepsin and most digestive yeasts used
in negligible (infinitesimal) quantities in food and medicine are
Q: 117) Is
the use of heart valves obtained from pigs permissible?
the use of heart of valves obtained from pigs is permissible, as
a matter of necessity.
Q: 118). What
is Sharia ruling for the use of gold by men?
is no objection in Sharia to use gold by men for the purpose of medical
treatment such as dental crown, bridges etc., but not solely for cosmetic
or adornment purpose which is not permissible.
Q: 119) What
is the Sharia ruling for wearing of silk by men?
principle, the Sharia forbids the wearing of natural silk by men with
the exception of medical cases such as allergies, scabies, itching…etc.
Q: 120) What
is the Sharia ruling for the use of artificial solvents, carriers and
solvents, carriers and thrusting substances used in pressurised containers
for beneficial or legitimate purposes are permissible. However, if they
are used to obtain drugging or hallucinatory effect, through inhalation,
they would be impermissible.
Q: 121) What
is the production of two or more beings that are complete genetic copies
of each other.
Q: 122) How
many types of cloning are there?
are two types of cloning :-
- Cloning by induced identical
twinning: As the fertilized egg splits into two cells, each of them
is then induced to make a fresh start and behave as if it were the original
fertilized egg. Each half would then grow into separate foetus, and
having come from the same fertilized egg, they would be carrying exactly
identical genetic components.
- Ordinary cloning: This
is achieved by injecting a nucleus from a somatic cell of an adult animal
into an egg whose nucleus had been removed. The cell would then grow
into a foetus that would be a true genetic copy of the adult living
animal from which the somatic cell nucleus was taken.
Q: 123) What
is the Islamic Scholars’ view regarding cloning by induced identical twinning?
Islamic Scholars have no objection, in principle to this method
of fertilization, but deem it too early to evaluate its advantages and
disadvantages, of its immediate benefits is the application of diagnostic
methods on either twin or some of its cells to establish their normalcy
before introducing into the womb. It could also be useful in treating
certain infertility cases, subject to all the controls governing
test-tube baby procedures. However, all cases introducing a
third party into marriage, whether a womb, an egg, a sperm or a cloning
cell are not permissible.
Q: 124) What
is the Islamic Scholars’ view regarding ordinary human cloning?
human cloning, in which the nucleus of a living somatic cell from an individual
is placed into the cytoplasm of an egg devoid of its nucleus, is
not permitted. If exceptional cases emerge in the future, they should
be considered to verify compliance with the Shariah.
Q: 125) What
are the risks involved in cloning?
risks include the infringement on the individuality and identity of the
person, undermining the stability of the social order, and the destruction
of the bases of blood relationships and age-old family ties, recognised
by the Islamic Shariah and all other religions as the foundation
of the family and of social order. This would have serious repercussions
on the principles governing blood ties, marriage and inheritance, as well
as on civil, criminal and other laws. The Islamic Scholars outrightly
reject as haram any proposals that would impinge on the legal marriage
contract – introducing a third party into it.
Q: 126) What
is the Islamic Scholars’ view regarding conducting research on cloning?
imposes no restrictions on scientific research, rather considers it a
religious duty and encourages it as a means of understanding God’s traditions
in His creation. However, Islam advocates the doors of scientific study
should not be left wide open for the application of the results of research
in the public domain without proper examination by Shariah experts. Not
everything that is practicable is necessarily applicable but should be
free of any harmful effects and in line with the rules of Shariah.
Q: 127) What
steps Muslim countries are obliged to take regarding the undue exploitation
Muslim countries are called upon to formulate the necessary legislation
to prevent foreign research institutes, organizations and experts from
directly or indirectly using Muslim countries for experimentation on human
cloning or promoting it. Specialized committees should be set up to look
into the ethics of biological research and adopt protocols for study and
research in Muslim countries, and prepare a document on foetal rights
as a prelude to formulate legislation on the rights of the foetus.
Q: 128) What
are the actions which nullify fasting?
to Quran and authentic Sunnah of the prophet (pbuh) three actions
nullify fasting: eating, drinking and sexual intercource.
Q: 129) Which
type of medications/interventions do not nullify fasting?
following do not nullify fasting –
- Eye and ear drops,
and ear wash.
- Nitroglycerine tablets
placed under the tongue for the treatment of angina.
- Insertion into the
of pessaries, medical ovules, vaginal washes, vaginal speculum and doctor’s
or midwife’s fingers during pelvic examination.
- Insertion of urethroscope
into man or woman radio-opaque media for X-ray diagnosis or bladder
- Tooth drilling, extraction,
cleaning or the use of miswak and toothbrush, provided nothing is swallowed
into the stomach.
- Injections through
the skin or muscle or veins or joints, with the exception of intravenous
- Blood donation or
receiving blood transfusion.
- Oxygen and anaesthetic
- All substances absorbed
into the body through the skin, such as creams, ointments and medical
- Drawing blood samples
for laboratory testing.
- Catheter and media
for arteriography of heart and other organs.
- Endoscopy for diagnostic
or intervention purposes.
- Mouth wash, gargle
or oral spray, provided nothing is swallowed into the stomach.
- Hysteroscopy or insertion
of an intrauterine device.
- Biopsy of the liver
or other organs.
- Nose drops, nasal
sprays and inhalers.
- Anal injections,
anoscopes or digital rectal examination.
- Surgery involving
general anaesthetic, if the patient decided to fast.
- Machine or intraperitoneal,
- Use of gastroscope,
provided if does not entail the introduction of liquids or other substances
into the stomach.