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PAIRING IN LIVING THINGS
Prof. Dr. M.N. Saadi and Prof. Dr. Tawfik Tamimi
SAUDI ARABIA

Allah says in the Glorious Quran:

IN TIME WE SHALL MAKE THEM FULLY UNDERSTAND OUR MESSAGE, (THROUGH WHAT THEY PERCEIVE) IN THE UTMOST HORIZONS (OF THE UNIVERSE) AND WITHIN THEMSELVES, SO THAT IT WILL BECOME CLEAR UNTO THEM THAT THIS (REVELATION) IS INDEED THE TRUTH. (STILL) IS IT NOT ENOUGH (FOR THEM TO KNOW) THAT THY SUSTAINER WITNESS UNTO EVERYTHING?"

(S.41: V.53)

We begin with this verse to explain that Allah Almighty promised in His Book, the Quran, that He will be uncovering some of the hidden secrets of this world and that He will be showing man some of the miracles existing in his body.

This is introduction is necessary. It shows that the aim behind writing this paper lies in looking deep into Allah's creation of this world, in accordance with the many Quranic verses asking us to examine Allah's creatures, the heavens and the earth, camels, fruits etc. All of these prove without any doubt the existence and the greatness of Allah.

In doing this, we look carefully at what is on this earth, studying, observing, as well as proving that it is an act of Allah.

This  was the introduction. In the Quran there are verses stating that there is pairing in this world: in every creature, in fruits, in plants of the earth, in human souls, in cattle and sheep, in creating male and female sexes. The most accurate meaning is given by verse: 49 of Surah 51 "Azzariat", which says:

"AND OF EVERY THING WE HAVE CREATED PAIRS THAT HE MAY RECEIVE INSTRUCTION".

This verse is a challenge to us to think deeply about all creatures in order to find out this fact: pairing. In fact, it says: Prove that this is not the case.

The Arabic equivalent to the word THING is given to mean any thing that can be known, physically and spiritually. It implies that a thing is willed and wanted and hence it is revealed after being non-existing. While the world PAIR in Arabic, means one member of a couple; anything that has a partner. It never means an absolute one or unity. Hence the Arabic word for pair is really a member of a pair, like something that has an opposite; like wet as opposed to dry, male vs female, day vs night, sweet vs bitter etc. At-Tabari explained this verse to mean creating two different species like happiness and sadness, belief and disbelief, sky and earth, sun and moon, male and female. He also mentioned that a THING is created by Allah with an opposite. This way Allah will be a unique entity different in being singled out: He is the One God, the Primary Cause, the Eternal and Independent Being, while a THING is never given to mean Allah in Arabic. A THING thus implies that it is deficient and imperfect because it performs one function or indicates one quality only: Fire, for instance only heats and cannot be used to cool, likewise, ice cools but cannot heat, and therefore both complement and supplement each other, while neither can be described as perfect. Therefore a THING is created and is imperfect. On the other hand, pairing is the rule in the created world. Said Kuttub in his: "In the Shadows of the Quran" says: Recent scientific research is going to reach the fact that the structure and make up of this world can be traced to the atom. The atom is composed of an electric pair: positive and negative. It is now known that the atom-mass is concentrated in the center in a nucleus, which is positive around which a number of negatively charged particles rotate. These are known as electrons. The sum total of charges is equivalent to that of the nucleus and is in equilibrium with it. The electrons move with a very high speed around the nucleus to prevent them from falling on it because of gravity. The nuclear mass is several thousand times more than that of the electrons with tremendous space between the two. This is the picture of the atom described in the Physics Textbooks.

Structure of the atom resembles that of the solar system according to the Physicists. We know that there is an hierarchy in this universe: atoms, elements, compounds, cells, tissues, organs, systems, organisms. Hence every living organism is composed of atoms that are made up of positive and negative components. A THING is a description of an entity that is created. THINGS can be divided basically into plants and animals as well as human beings and genies, with pairing clearly exemplified. It is also present in the sky and the earth, the sun and the moon, the star and the planet; the earth also clearly shows pairing. Land and water, mountain and plain, sweet-water and salt-water etc. If we look at living things like plants for instance we find that each plant is made up of cells. A cell is a very small tiny thing surrounded by a wall inside which there is a membrane bordering a viscus substance known as the cytoplasm which in turn surrounds the nucleus.

On examining the wall we find that it is made up of a wall and a secondary wall. The plasma membrane is also made up of two lipid layers in which two types of proteins are embedded. Cytoplasmic Organelles are covered by double layered membrane as is found in the nucleus, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum (which can either be smooth or rough) ribosomes, vacuoles etc. Animal cells on the other hand are not very much different from plants except for the distinguishing characteristics between them (like the presence of a cell wall and plastids in plants). Cells could either be eucaryotic or procaryotic, showing pairing. Plants respire as well as photosynthesize taking in oxygen in the former and expelling out carbon CO2. They do the opposite in photosynthesis, (taking in CO2 and producing Oxygen), with the help of the light absorbing chlorophyll, which is Chi A, and Chi B. Photosynthesis is made up of 2 systems:- Photosynthesis I and Photosynthesis II. In the first one a 5 carbon compound is manufactured out of Carbon dioxide, the level of energy is increased and an electron is accepted and carried along the electron transfer series to the 2nd system. In the second system a six carbon compound is manufactured and Oxygen is produced. Pairing is clear in Photosynthesis.

Classification of plants reveals that they are either vascular or non-vascular. Vascular plants are either seed producing or seed-less. Seed plants are either gymnosperms or angiosperms. Angiosperms are either monocots or dicots and flowers are either single or culsters known as inflorescences.

Inforescences are on a stalk (peduncle) made up of nodes or internodes ending with a receptacle. Most flowers contain two sets of sterile appendages, the sepals and petals, which are attached to the receptacle below the fertile parts of the flower, the stamens and carpels. The sepals occur below the petals, and the stamens below the carpels. Collectively, the sepals form the calyx and the petals the corolla. Together, the calyx and corolla constitute the perianth ('around the flower'). The sepals and petals are essentially leaflike in structure. Commonly the sepals are green and the petals brightly colored, although in many flowers both parts are similar in color.

The stamen, which is the male reproductive organ is made up of a fine filament carrying a two-lobed anther having pollen grains. Flowers also have carpels, the female reproductive organs housing the ovaries, out of which comes the stigma.

Reproduction in plants can be either sexual or asexual. So what about a flower that has both male and female organs, doesn't self-fertilization take place in it? The answer is that in such cases it is almost impossible for self-fertilization to take place. The flowers have adapted against that in many ways, which prevented them from doing that.

For example, the stigma will be covered with wax; pollen produced by the anther of the same flower cannot dissolve it while pollen of a completely different flower from the same species can do that. Other ways include having the stigma higher than the anther or having the anther in a group away from the stigma, which is in the middle.

Some plants produce seeds out of which a root and stem grow. Plant tissues are either primary or secondary; with the secondary being either vascular cambium or cortical; the former is either xylem or phloem while cortical tissues are either primary or secondary with the later being either cork or phelloderm. All of this is exemplifying pairing.

Roots could either be primary or secondary; ground or aerial, fixing plants or for storing food. Stems also contain the cortex and the pith and they carry leaves. The leaf is made up of a blade (lamina) and a petiole. Dicot leaves are either simple or compound. Compound leaves are 2 types; pinnates with the blades carried on both sides of the petiole or they can be palmate with all of them hanging at the tip of the petiole. Each blade has two surfaces in which stomata are found. Each stoma is surrounded by 2 guard cells.

Green plants manufacture from simple compounds complex ones, examples of which are Carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and hormones. Auxins are plant hormones that elongate the stem. They also help fruits mature, cambium to grow and cells to be specialized. Here they are stimulatory. However, auxins do have inhibitory roles; they prevent lateral buds from growing. Plant hormones, therefore exemplify pairing.

Animals on the other hand are either symmetrical or asymmetrical. Symmetry is either bilateral or non-bilateral like radial or spherical. Animals could be unicellular which reproduce either sexually or asexually. Sexual reproduction involves a male and a female. Reproduction then is either sexual or asexual in animals as well as in plants. Asexual reproduction could be in the form of fission whereby the body divides into two organisms. This form of reproduction implies numerical replication of DNA. DNA constitutes the major portion of the chromosome. DNA itself is composed of the two complimentary strands. Pairing is clear here. DNA is the origin of life because it is capable of making identical copies of itself and also because it contains definite information on the characteristics of the living organism. Here lies the origin of life and pairing is very clear in it. DNA itself is of two strands, each coming from one parent. DNA is negatively charged but covered with a positively charged protein. The two stands are attached together by chemical bonds between four nitrogen bases that exist   in pairs: C and G, and A and T.

A sexual reproduction could also be in the form of budding, spore formations, fission etc., all of which are due to simple retention division known as mitosis. Sexual reproduction on the other hand starts with formation of gametes by meiosis. Gametes are either males (sperms) or females (ova), each containing a haploid number of chromosomes. So if the diploid chromosome number in a human somatic cell is 46, the sperm has 23 and so does the ovum. The sperm comes from the father and the ovum from the mother. Union of the two forms a diploid zygote. Pairing is evident. Chromosomes contain genes, which are always in pairs with each carrying a genetic trait: dominant or recessive. Genes carry the characteristics of the species as well as the individual in code. Enzymes are manufactured using this code. Genes are responsible for height, skin colour, eye colour, intelligence, obesity etc. They are transmitted in the ovum and the sperm.

Plants also reproduce sexually. Pairing is every where.

After that when you look around you will see pairing in every thing. You see in the final body form. Taking the human being as an example, he has two hands, two legs, two lips, two ears, two eyes, five fingers in every hand and 5 toes in every leg. He has a head opposite to the feet, a back and an abdomen. Man is body and soul. When closely examining the organs and the systems and their functions we see pairing in almost every single one of them: the heart is really two hearts, left and right; there are two ovaries, 2 testicles, 2 lungs, two kidneys. Out of nervous systems nerves go in pairs, left and right. In respiration the body takes Oxygen and expels CO2. Blood is liquid which contains formed elements. Formed elements may be white blood corpuscles or red. Blood vessels are either arteries or veins, with almost a vein to every artery. The nervous system may be divided into sympathetic or para-sympathetic. The sympathetic, for instance, dilates the pupil, inhibits the flow of salvia, increases heart beats dilates capillaries in the lung, inhibits digestive secretion and peristalsis, stimulates the conversion of glycogen to glucose and inhibits contraction of the urinary bladder. The para-sympathetic does exactly the opposite with pairing clearly indicated.

The body contains enzymes. A living cell is capable of producing some where around 50,000 of them. Enzymes are catalysts in biochemical reactions. They are all functional proteins. In addition to them there are structural proteins used in making tissues and organs. Enzymes take part in anabolism as well as catabolism. In the former they help synthesize compounds like proteins, fats, etc., while in the latter they are used to break down these compounds as well as help in the oxidation of glucose to produce energy.

Enzymes are active under optimal conditions of temperature, pH, and substrate concentration. They could be inhibited by poisons or unfavourable conditions. In all of that pairing is clear. Proteins could be levorotary or dextrotary. This is true of many other compounds.

The Endrocrine system is one of two; the other being the exocrine which includes salivary, sweat, sebaceous, gastric, uterine, vaginal and mucus glands, which secrete the compounds through ducts to the outside of the body. Endocrine glands secreted their hormones directly into the blood. A very clear example of pairing.

The Endocrine glands are many. They secrete hormones, which could be stimulatory or inhibitory. Glucose for instance is controlled by two hormones, insulin and glucagon with the former decreasing its level in the blood while the latter increasing it. Calcium metabolism is controlled by parathormone and calcitonin. The former is secreted by parathyroids and increases the level of calcium in the blood while calcitonin is secreted by the thyroid. It does exactly the opposite. In actual effect there is a clear characteristic in the nature of the Physiology of the endocrine glands. They lead to equilibrium by way of stimulation and inhibition. This is a clear example of pairing. Even if we look at the functions of the one gland we find that pairing leads to equilibrium. Take the thyroid gland for instance the normal function is accomplished by equilibrium between hypersecretion and hyposecretion.

Endocrinology is a big field, which cannot be covered in total here. Therefore, I shall choose some examples to indicate pairing. During pregnancy progesterone is secreted by the corpus luteum of the ovary during the early phase and by the placenta later on in order to maintain pregnancy by keeping the uterine wall thick, rich in blood and spongy. If the level of progesterone decreases because of one reason or the other, or during labour, the uterus starts contracting to expel the foetus, at this time estrogen levels increase. Pairing is clear here also.

There are many hormones that act antagonistically like the Thyroid Stimulating Hormones and Thyroxin, ACTH & the adrenal cortex hormones, gonadotrophins to the gonads, hypothalamic releasing factors to pituitary hormones etc. Paining is indicated.

The kidney shows pairing. It is made up or a cortex and a medulla. The cortex glomeruli inside Bowman's capsules with an afferent and an efferent artery. The nephron has a proximal and a distal convoluted tubule. The loop of Henle has a descending and an ascending arm.

Muscles are either striated or none striated. Striated muscles contain actin and myosin. Neurons have axons and dendrites.

The body muscles are either smooth or skeletal. Smooth muscles could be either circular or longitudinal. Skeletal muscles are responsible to move bones with one moving the bone in one direction while another in the oppdirection.

There is inspiration opposite to expiration, drinking to urination and sweating, feeding opposed to defecation.

There is an object and its image, tallness and shortness, obesity and slimness, lightness and heaviness, laughter and crying, sleep and wakefulness, convexity and concavity, war and peace. Pairing every where: pairing is also seen in metabolism: anabolism and catabolism, irritability and response, receptor and effector.

Water out of which life arose is a liquid that evaporates at high temperatures and solidifies at low temperatures below zero.

Cells move by cilia or flagella. Transport into and out of cells could be passive by diffusion from a high concentration to a lower one, or active from low to higher concentrations.

Feeding of living organisms is either autotrophic or heterotrophic. Digestion is intracellular as in Amoeba, bacteria and WBC, or extracellular like in multicellular animals.

Energy needed for the bodily activities can be obtained in one of two ways: aerobically or anaerobically. Pairing every where.

The water cycle exemplifies pairing: Seawater evaporates to form the clouds, which condense to form rain.

The circulatory system is either open as in insects or closed as in man. Blood is either liquid or coagulated.

Pairing is also evident in Teeth and in Dentistry, The masticatory apparatus is composed of two dental arches: the maxilla and the mandible. The maxilla is homologous to two bones: the maxilla pro e and the premaxilla. The mandible makes its appearance as a bilateral structure: right and left mandibles joined in the midline.

Teeth develop in two generations: deciduous as well as permanent dentitions. The primary deciduous teeth are composed of ten pairs while the permanent are made of sixteen pairs.

The tooth develops as bud, which then becomes covered with a cap. The dental cap is made from an inner dental epithelium (tall cells) and another cuboidal epithelial layer; the enamel grows in between these two.

Later, a dental papilla and a dental sac form. The papilla produces the dentin. Dentin forms in two stages: uncalcified predentin and then calcified dentin.

Pairing is also evident in human development. The male sperm (with its 23 chromosomes) unites with the female ovum (with its 23 chromosomes) to form a zygote that has 46 chromosomes. The beginning then shows paring. The zygote then divides mitotically into 2 cells. The cleavage continues: 2 give 4, 8, 16, 32 cells, etc. The zygote travels until it reaches the uterus where it becomes a 'blastula'. This leech-like stage is composed of an outer trophoblast and an inner cell mass. The embryo develops further and the inner cell mass produces the ectoderm and endoderm. Mesoderm later forms in between and gives rise to somites. At this stage the embryo becomes known in Arabic as a "Chewed" thing.
 
When the human organs are examined, they reveal paring. They are all given rise to by the 3 germ layers.

Ectoderm for instance gives rise to the nervous system, which is divided into two; central and peripheral. Central nervous system contains the brain and spinal cord. The brain structure reveals the cerebrum, cerebellum and brain stem. The cerebrum is in the form of a right and a left hemisphere, or it is in four lobes: frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital. The cerebellum is made of a right and a left portion connected by the vermis. The brain stem is composed of the medulla, the pons, the midbrain and the diencephalon. There are also twelve pairs of cranial nerves. The spinal cord is organized into a right and a left side.

Mesoderm gives rise to connective tissue, muscles, urogenital system, blood, bone marrow and membranes. They all show parity. Bones are of two kinds: those that make up the peripheral bones and the others are in the cranium. Peripheral bones are in two: left and right. The vertebral column is composed of vertebra, each of which made of two skeletal pieces.

Mesoderm also makes the spleen and the appendix. These are considered by anatomists as single structures that do not exist in pairs. Some anatomists, however, have found what they called an "accessory spleen" in addition to the spleen proper. Pairing may not be clear in the appendix but that does not mean it is not there. More investigations are needed in this respect. The spleen on the other hand shows pairing in its function. It makes two kinds of WBC's: Monocytes and Lymphocytes, each of which has a different role in immunology.

Endoderm gives rise to the mucous membranes in the digestive system, to the liver, pancreas, thyroid and parathyroids, the thymus, etc.

The stomach has two openings (cardiac and pyloric), two curvatures (lesser and greater), two gastric arteries (right and left) and two vagal branches (right and left).

The liver starts from endoderm as two buds; The liver we know is made up of four lobes: right and left, caudate and quadrate. The pancreas starts off as a ventral and a dorsal bud, which unite to produce the pancreas. It performs two functions: digestive and hormonal. The intestines are small and large.

Pairing as mentioned earlier may not be clear in some other parts of the body. But that does not mean it is not there. It indicates that more investigations are required.

Otherwise pairing as has so far been stated is striking:

WITHIN YOUR OWN SELVES, CAN YOU NOT THEN SEE?

(S.51: V.21)

Pairing is so evident that it says: Observe that every thing is in pairs. This is everywhere, even in human behaviour.

Here man loves and hates, is fair and unjust, is generous and stingy, honest or dishonest, truthful or lier, believer or non-believer, hungry or full, happy or sad, patient or impatient. Pairing every where: life and death, birth and mortality, rationality and stupidity, young and old, fast and slow, light and darkness, paradise and hell, etc.

Even the Angles have wings that are in pairs.

In conclusion, pairing is in very thing except Allah Almighty.

Yet some one might ask: But is pairing really in every thing?

Our response will be that pairing is in every thing. If we cannot see pairing in an empirical observable thing that does not negate it. We need to look harder and dig deeper in order to find it.

Didn't Allah Almighty say:

"AND OF EVERY THING WE HAVE CREATED PAIRS…"

 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

We wish to thank Drs. H.A. Zaki and Y. Khawaji for providing the information on pairing in teeth and human development. We also wish to thank Mr. Mohammad Shafi Minhas for typing the manuscript.

REFERENCES

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